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Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal improves growth performance, feed utilization, amino acids profile, and economic benefits of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.)

Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 3, 238 - 249, 01.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22023

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with black soldier fly larvae meal (BSFLM) on the growth performance, feed utilization, carcass body composition, and amino acids profile of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Three isonitrogenous (30% crude protein) diets containing BSFLM in varying proportions of 0% (BSFLM0), 50% (BSFLM50), and 100% (BSFLM100), were formulated to replace SBM. A commercial diet (COMM0) sourced from the local market was used as a positive control. Male sex-reversed O. niloticus juveniles of a mean weight 20.88 ±0.16 g were stocked in 12 cages each at a density of 12.5 fish m-3. Fish were hand-fed at 5% (28 days), 3% (54 days), and 2.5% (84 days) of the body weight twice a day (1000 hrs and 1600 hrs). Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found in the final body weight, body weight gain (BWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate, and condition factor (K). The best growth performance and feed utilization was recorded in fish fed on BSFLM100. The different diets had significant effects on the body composition and amino acid profiles of the experimental fish (P<0.05). Fish fed on BSFLM100 exhibited highest values for phenylalanine, threonine, Isoleucine, lysine, proline, and glutamic acid amino acids. The partial enterprise budget analysis indicated that replacing SBM with BSFLM at 50% and 100% reduced the cost of production compared to the control diet (BSFLM0) and commercial diet (COMM0). The study demonstrated that BSFLM is a cost-effective alternative to SBM in the diets of Oreochromis niloticus hence can replace soybean meal up to 100% without negative effect on growth and carcass body composition.

References

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  • Abdel-Tawwab, M., Khalil, R.H., Metwally, A.A., Shakweer, M.S., Khallaf, M.A., Abdel-Latif, H.M. (2020). Effects of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) larvae meal on growth performance, organs-somatic indices, body composition, and hemato-biochemical variables of European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Aquaculture, 522, 735136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735136
  • Agbohessou, P.S., Mandiki, S.N., Gougbédji, A., Megido, R.C., Hossain, M.S., De Jaeger, P., Larondelle, Y., Francis, F., Lalèyè, P.A., Kestemont, P. (2021). Total replacement of fish meal by enriched‐fatty acid Hermetia illucens meal did not substantially affect growth parameters or innate immune status and improved whole body biochemical quality of Nile tilapia juveniles. Aquaculture Nutrition, 27(3), 880-896. https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.13232
  • Amesa, S., Negesse, T., Teklegiorgis, Y. (2018). Replacing soya bean meal with fish offal meal and poultry litter in the diets of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in pond culture on their growth performance and carcass composition. Agricultural Research & Technology, 14(2). https://doi.org/10.19080/ARTOAJ.2018.14.555920
  • AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) (1995). Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Edition. AOAC, Arlington, VA. USA, 71–72.
  • APHA (American Public Health Association) (1995). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 19th Edition. APHA, Washington D.C. USA, 4-106 - 4-112
  • Arriaga-Hernández, D., Hernández, C., Martínez-Montaño, E., Ibarra-Castro, L., Lizárraga-Velázquez, E., Leyva-López, N., Chávez-Sánchez, M.C. (2021). Fish meal replacement by soybean products in aquaculture feeds for white snook, Centropomus viridis: Effect on growth, diet digestibility, and digestive capacity. Aquaculture, 530, 735823. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735823
  • Basto, A., Matos, E., Valente, L.M. (2020). Nutritional value of different insect larvae meals as protein sources for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. Aquaculture, 521. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735085
  • Bruni, L., Secci, G., Husein, Y., Faccenda, F., de Medeiros, A.C.L., Parisi, G. (2021). Is it possible to cut down fish meal and soybean meal use in aqua feed limiting the negative effects on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillet quality and consumer acceptance? Aquaculture, 736996. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2021.736996
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  • Cummins Jr, V.C., Rawles, S.D., Thompson, K.R., Velasquez, A., Kobayashi, Y., Hager, J., Webster, C.D. (2017). Evaluation of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal as partial or total replacement of marine fish meal in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquaculture, 473, 337-344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.02.022
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  • Gasco, L., Biasato, I., Dabbou, S., Schiavone, A., Gai, F. (2019). Animals fed insect-based diets: State-of-the-art on digestibility, performance and product quality. Animals, 9(4), 170. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040170
  • Ghosh, K., Ray, A.K. (2017). Aquafeed formulation using plant feedstuffs: Prospective application of fish-gut microorganisms and microbial biotechnology. Academic Press, 109-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811412-4.00005-9
  • Godoy, A.C., Santos, O.O., Oxford, J.H., de Amorim Melo, I.W., Rodrigues, R.B., Neu, D., Nunes, R.V., Boscolo, W.R. (2019). Soybean oil for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in finishing diets: Economic, zootechnical and nutritional meat improvements. Aquaculture, 512,734324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.734324
  • He, M., Li, X., Poolsawat, L., Guo, Z., Yao, W., Zhang, C., Leng, X. (2020). Effects of fish meal replaced by fermented soybean meal on growth performance, intestinal histology and microbiota of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Aquaculture Nutrition, 26(4), 1058-1071. https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.13064
  • Hopkins, K.D. (1992). Reporting fish growth: A review of the basics 1. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 23(3), 173-179. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1992.tb00766.x
  • Huis, A.V., Itterbeeck, J.V., Klunder, H., Mertens, E., Halloran, A., Muir, G., Vantomme, P. (2013). Edible Insects: Future prospects for food and feed security. FAO-Forestry paper, 171.
  • Li, Y., Kortner, T.M., Chikwati, E.M., Belghit, I., Lock, E.J., Krogdahl, Å. (2020). Total replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal does not compromise the gut health of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture, 520, 734967. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.734967
  • Lu, R., Chen, Y., Yu, W., Lin, M., Yang, G., Qin, C., Meng, X., Zhang, Y., Ji, H., Nie, G. (2020). Defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal can replace soybean meal in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) diets. Aquaculture Reports, 18, 100520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqrep.2020.100520
  • Luthada-Raswiswi, R., Mukaratirwa, S., O’Brien, G. (2021). Animal protein sources as a substitute for fish meal in aquaculture diets: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Applied Sciences, 11(9), 3854. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093854
  • Malcorps, W., Kok, B., van‘t Land, M., Fritz, M., van Doren, D., Servin, K., van der Heijden, P., Palmer, R., Auchterlonie, N.A., Rietkerk, M., Santos, M.J. (2019). The sustainability conundrum of fish meal substitution by plant ingredients in shrimp feeds. Sustainability, 11(4), 1212. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041212
  • Muin, H., Taufek, N.M., Kamarudin, M.S., Razak, S.A. (2017). Growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) fed with different levels of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758) maggot meal diet. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 16(2), 567-577.
  • Musa, S., Aura, C.M., Okechi, J.K. (2021). Economic analysis of tilapia cage culture in Lake Victoria using different cage volumes. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/10454438.2021.1884632
  • Niyibituronsa, M., Onyango, A.N., Gaidashova, S., Imathiu, S., Uwizerwa, M., Wanjuki, I., Munga, F., Mutiga, S., Harvey, J. (2016). Evaluation of aflatoxin contamination of soybean in Rwanda. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 75(OCE3). https://doi.org/10.1017/S002966511600269X
  • Rana, K.J., Siriwardena, S., Hasan, M.R. (2009). Impact of rising feed ingredient prices on aquafeeds and aquaculture production (No. 541). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). http://www.fao.org/i1143e00.htm
  • Rawski, M., Mazurkiewicz, J., Kierończyk, B., Józefiak, D. (2021). Black soldier fly full-fat larvae meal is more profitable than fish meal and fish oil in Siberian sturgeon farming: The effects on aquaculture sustainability, economy and fish GIT development. Animals, 11(3), 604. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092599
  • Sealey, W.M., Gaylord, T.G., Barrows, F.T., Tomberlin, J.K., McGuire, M.A., Ross, C., St‐Hilaire, S. (2011). Sensory analysis of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, Hermetia illucens. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 42(1), 34-45. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.2010.00441.x
  • Sharda, P., Sharma, O.P., Saini, V.P. (2017). Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) diet. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 5(4), 845-849.
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Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 3, 238 - 249, 01.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22023

Abstract

References

  • Abdel-Warith, A.A., Younis, E.M., Al-Asgah, N.A., Mahboob, S. (2019). Effect of replacing fish meal by full fat soybean meal on growth performance, feed utilization and gastrointestinal enzymes in diets for African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Brazilian Journal of Biology, 80, 535-543. https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.214763
  • Abdel-Tawwab, M., Khalil, R.H., Metwally, A.A., Shakweer, M.S., Khallaf, M.A., Abdel-Latif, H.M. (2020). Effects of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) larvae meal on growth performance, organs-somatic indices, body composition, and hemato-biochemical variables of European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Aquaculture, 522, 735136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735136
  • Agbohessou, P.S., Mandiki, S.N., Gougbédji, A., Megido, R.C., Hossain, M.S., De Jaeger, P., Larondelle, Y., Francis, F., Lalèyè, P.A., Kestemont, P. (2021). Total replacement of fish meal by enriched‐fatty acid Hermetia illucens meal did not substantially affect growth parameters or innate immune status and improved whole body biochemical quality of Nile tilapia juveniles. Aquaculture Nutrition, 27(3), 880-896. https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.13232
  • Amesa, S., Negesse, T., Teklegiorgis, Y. (2018). Replacing soya bean meal with fish offal meal and poultry litter in the diets of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in pond culture on their growth performance and carcass composition. Agricultural Research & Technology, 14(2). https://doi.org/10.19080/ARTOAJ.2018.14.555920
  • AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) (1995). Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Edition. AOAC, Arlington, VA. USA, 71–72.
  • APHA (American Public Health Association) (1995). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 19th Edition. APHA, Washington D.C. USA, 4-106 - 4-112
  • Arriaga-Hernández, D., Hernández, C., Martínez-Montaño, E., Ibarra-Castro, L., Lizárraga-Velázquez, E., Leyva-López, N., Chávez-Sánchez, M.C. (2021). Fish meal replacement by soybean products in aquaculture feeds for white snook, Centropomus viridis: Effect on growth, diet digestibility, and digestive capacity. Aquaculture, 530, 735823. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735823
  • Basto, A., Matos, E., Valente, L.M. (2020). Nutritional value of different insect larvae meals as protein sources for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. Aquaculture, 521. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735085
  • Bruni, L., Secci, G., Husein, Y., Faccenda, F., de Medeiros, A.C.L., Parisi, G. (2021). Is it possible to cut down fish meal and soybean meal use in aqua feed limiting the negative effects on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillet quality and consumer acceptance? Aquaculture, 736996. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2021.736996
  • Chang, C.Y., Zimmermann, A., Heckelei, T. (2016). The expansion of aquaculture and its effects on global land use and sustainability, 873, 60962. http://doi.org/10.22004/ag.econ.244765
  • Cummins Jr, V.C., Rawles, S.D., Thompson, K.R., Velasquez, A., Kobayashi, Y., Hager, J., Webster, C.D. (2017). Evaluation of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal as partial or total replacement of marine fish meal in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquaculture, 473, 337-344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.02.022
  • Daliri, M. (2012). Length-weight and length-length relationships, relative condition factor and Fulton’s condition factor of five Cyprinid species in Anzali wetland, southwest of the Caspian Sea. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 10(1), 25-31.
  • Daniel, N. (2018). A review on replacing fish meal in aqua feeds using plant protein sources. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 6(2), 164-179.
  • Dee Roos, B., Sneddon, A.A., Sprague, M., Horgan, G.W., Brouwer, I.A. (2017). The potential impact of compositional changes in farmed fish on its health-giving properties: is it time to reconsider current dietary recommendations? Public Health Nutrition, 20(11), 2042-2049. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980017000696
  • Devic, E., Leschen, W., Murray, F., Little, D.C., 2018. Growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of advanced nursing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal. Aquaculture nutrition, 24(1), 416-423. https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.12573
  • Dietz, C., Liebert, F. (2018). Does graded substitution of soy protein concentrate by an insect meal respond on growth and N-utilization in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)? Aquaculture Reports, 12, 43-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqrep.2018.09.001 El-Hack, A., Mohamed, E., Shafi, M.E., Alghamdi, W.Y., Abdelnour, S.A., Shehata, A.M., Noreldin, A.E., Ashour, E.A., Swelum, A.A., Al-Sagan, A.A., Alkhateeb, M. (2020). Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) meal as a promising feed ingredient for poultry: A comprehensive review. Agriculture, 10(8), 339. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10080339
  • FAO (2020). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2020. Sustainability in action. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 206. https://doi.org/10.4060/ca9229en
  • Gariglio, M., Dabbou, S., Biasato, I., Capucchio, M.T., Colombino, E., Hernández, F., Madrid, J., Martínez, S., Gai, F., Caimi, C., Oddon, S.B. (2019). Nutritional effects of the dietary inclusion of partially defatted Hermetia illucens larva meal in Muscovy duck. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 10(1), 37. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-019-0344-7
  • Gasco, L., Biasato, I., Dabbou, S., Schiavone, A., Gai, F. (2019). Animals fed insect-based diets: State-of-the-art on digestibility, performance and product quality. Animals, 9(4), 170. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040170
  • Ghosh, K., Ray, A.K. (2017). Aquafeed formulation using plant feedstuffs: Prospective application of fish-gut microorganisms and microbial biotechnology. Academic Press, 109-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811412-4.00005-9
  • Godoy, A.C., Santos, O.O., Oxford, J.H., de Amorim Melo, I.W., Rodrigues, R.B., Neu, D., Nunes, R.V., Boscolo, W.R. (2019). Soybean oil for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in finishing diets: Economic, zootechnical and nutritional meat improvements. Aquaculture, 512,734324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.734324
  • He, M., Li, X., Poolsawat, L., Guo, Z., Yao, W., Zhang, C., Leng, X. (2020). Effects of fish meal replaced by fermented soybean meal on growth performance, intestinal histology and microbiota of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Aquaculture Nutrition, 26(4), 1058-1071. https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.13064
  • Hopkins, K.D. (1992). Reporting fish growth: A review of the basics 1. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 23(3), 173-179. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1992.tb00766.x
  • Huis, A.V., Itterbeeck, J.V., Klunder, H., Mertens, E., Halloran, A., Muir, G., Vantomme, P. (2013). Edible Insects: Future prospects for food and feed security. FAO-Forestry paper, 171.
  • Li, Y., Kortner, T.M., Chikwati, E.M., Belghit, I., Lock, E.J., Krogdahl, Å. (2020). Total replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal does not compromise the gut health of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture, 520, 734967. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.734967
  • Lu, R., Chen, Y., Yu, W., Lin, M., Yang, G., Qin, C., Meng, X., Zhang, Y., Ji, H., Nie, G. (2020). Defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal can replace soybean meal in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) diets. Aquaculture Reports, 18, 100520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqrep.2020.100520
  • Luthada-Raswiswi, R., Mukaratirwa, S., O’Brien, G. (2021). Animal protein sources as a substitute for fish meal in aquaculture diets: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Applied Sciences, 11(9), 3854. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093854
  • Malcorps, W., Kok, B., van‘t Land, M., Fritz, M., van Doren, D., Servin, K., van der Heijden, P., Palmer, R., Auchterlonie, N.A., Rietkerk, M., Santos, M.J. (2019). The sustainability conundrum of fish meal substitution by plant ingredients in shrimp feeds. Sustainability, 11(4), 1212. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041212
  • Muin, H., Taufek, N.M., Kamarudin, M.S., Razak, S.A. (2017). Growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) fed with different levels of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758) maggot meal diet. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 16(2), 567-577.
  • Musa, S., Aura, C.M., Okechi, J.K. (2021). Economic analysis of tilapia cage culture in Lake Victoria using different cage volumes. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/10454438.2021.1884632
  • Niyibituronsa, M., Onyango, A.N., Gaidashova, S., Imathiu, S., Uwizerwa, M., Wanjuki, I., Munga, F., Mutiga, S., Harvey, J. (2016). Evaluation of aflatoxin contamination of soybean in Rwanda. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 75(OCE3). https://doi.org/10.1017/S002966511600269X
  • Rana, K.J., Siriwardena, S., Hasan, M.R. (2009). Impact of rising feed ingredient prices on aquafeeds and aquaculture production (No. 541). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). http://www.fao.org/i1143e00.htm
  • Rawski, M., Mazurkiewicz, J., Kierończyk, B., Józefiak, D. (2021). Black soldier fly full-fat larvae meal is more profitable than fish meal and fish oil in Siberian sturgeon farming: The effects on aquaculture sustainability, economy and fish GIT development. Animals, 11(3), 604. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092599
  • Sealey, W.M., Gaylord, T.G., Barrows, F.T., Tomberlin, J.K., McGuire, M.A., Ross, C., St‐Hilaire, S. (2011). Sensory analysis of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, Hermetia illucens. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 42(1), 34-45. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.2010.00441.x
  • Sharda, P., Sharma, O.P., Saini, V.P. (2017). Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) diet. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 5(4), 845-849.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Marine and Freshwater Biology
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Simon SHATİ> (Primary Author)
Maseno University, 1. Department of Animal and Fisheries Sciences
0000-0003-0552-7728
Kenya


Mary OPİYO>
Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute
0000-0001-9660-5888
Kenya


Rita NAİRUTİ>
Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute
0000-0001-7188-7516
Kenya


Amon SHOKO>
Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute
0000-0002-2174-8857
Tanzania


Fridah MUNYİ>
Kenya Marine & Fisheries Research Institute.
0000-0003-2513-3558
Kenya


Erick OGELLO>
Maseno University, Department of Animal and Fisheries Sciences
0000-0001-9250-7869
Kenya

Supporting Institution This work was carried out with the financial support from ICIPE through the Bioinnovate Africa program funded by Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) grant contribution
Project Number 51050076
Thanks We acknowledge Biobuu Kenya Ltd in Kilifi through Mr. Kigen Compton for provision of the defatted black soldier fly larvae used in this study. The Special thanks to Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI) Sagana technicians; Elijah Gichana and Joel Gatagwu for technical support during sampling and sample analysis. The Mercantiles: Mr. Johnson Makori and Mr. Kiragu Mutegi are also appreciated for their assistance in daily feeding and monthly sampling of the fish. The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) is acknowledged for their technical assistance in proximate analysis and amino acid profiling. Last but not least, KMFRI and Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute (TAFIRI) are acknowledged for providing permission to authors to participate in this study.
Publication Date July 1, 2022
Application Date April 26, 2022
Acceptance Date June 11, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { aquatres1108366, journal = {Aquatic Research}, eissn = {2618-6365}, address = {Esnaf Mah. Pembe Köşk Sok. Kentplus Kadıköy Sitesi B Blok D435 Kadıköy-İstanbul}, publisher = {Nuray ERKAN ÖZDEN}, year = {2022}, volume = {5}, number = {3}, pages = {238 - 249}, doi = {10.3153/AR22023}, title = {Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal improves growth performance, feed utilization, amino acids profile, and economic benefits of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.)}, key = {cite}, author = {Shati, Simon and Opiyo, Mary and Nairuti, Rita and Shoko, Amon and Munyi, Fridah and Ogello, Erick} }
APA Shati, S. , Opiyo, M. , Nairuti, R. , Shoko, A. , Munyi, F. & Ogello, E. (2022). Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal improves growth performance, feed utilization, amino acids profile, and economic benefits of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.) . Aquatic Research , 5 (3) , 238-249 . DOI: 10.3153/AR22023
MLA Shati, S. , Opiyo, M. , Nairuti, R. , Shoko, A. , Munyi, F. , Ogello, E. "Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal improves growth performance, feed utilization, amino acids profile, and economic benefits of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.)" . Aquatic Research 5 (2022 ): 238-249 <http://aquatres.scientificwebjournals.com/en/pub/issue/69220/1108366>
Chicago Shati, S. , Opiyo, M. , Nairuti, R. , Shoko, A. , Munyi, F. , Ogello, E. "Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal improves growth performance, feed utilization, amino acids profile, and economic benefits of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.)". Aquatic Research 5 (2022 ): 238-249
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal improves growth performance, feed utilization, amino acids profile, and economic benefits of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.) AU - Simon Shati , Mary Opiyo , Rita Nairuti , Amon Shoko , Fridah Munyi , Erick Ogello Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.3153/AR22023 DO - 10.3153/AR22023 T2 - Aquatic Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 238 EP - 249 VL - 5 IS - 3 SN - -2618-6365 M3 - doi: 10.3153/AR22023 UR - https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22023 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Aquatic Research Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal improves growth performance, feed utilization, amino acids profile, and economic benefits of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.) %A Simon Shati , Mary Opiyo , Rita Nairuti , Amon Shoko , Fridah Munyi , Erick Ogello %T Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal improves growth performance, feed utilization, amino acids profile, and economic benefits of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.) %D 2022 %J Aquatic Research %P -2618-6365 %V 5 %N 3 %R doi: 10.3153/AR22023 %U 10.3153/AR22023
ISNAD Shati, Simon , Opiyo, Mary , Nairuti, Rita , Shoko, Amon , Munyi, Fridah , Ogello, Erick . "Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal improves growth performance, feed utilization, amino acids profile, and economic benefits of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.)". Aquatic Research 5 / 3 (July 2022): 238-249 . https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22023
AMA Shati S. , Opiyo M. , Nairuti R. , Shoko A. , Munyi F. , Ogello E. Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal improves growth performance, feed utilization, amino acids profile, and economic benefits of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.). Aquat Res. 2022; 5(3): 238-249.
Vancouver Shati S. , Opiyo M. , Nairuti R. , Shoko A. , Munyi F. , Ogello E. Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal improves growth performance, feed utilization, amino acids profile, and economic benefits of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.). Aquatic Research. 2022; 5(3): 238-249.
IEEE S. Shati , M. Opiyo , R. Nairuti , A. Shoko , F. Munyi and E. Ogello , "Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal improves growth performance, feed utilization, amino acids profile, and economic benefits of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.)", Aquatic Research, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 238-249, Jul. 2022, doi:10.3153/AR22023

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