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Dietary incorporation of Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas shoots improved growth performance and haematological profile of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Hapa Nets

Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 1, 1 - 10, 01.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22001

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of sweet potato Ipomoea batatas powder (IbSPP), hot-water extracts (IbSPHWE) and crude ethanolic extracts (IbSPCEE) as growth promoter and immunoenhancer for tilapia cultured in hapa nets. Fish were divided randomly into four Treatments: T1 (control group) was fed a practical diet (PD) while T2, T3 and T4 were fed PD + IbSP powder (P), PD + IbSP hot-water extract (HWE), PD + IbSP Crude Ethanol Extracts (CCE), respectively. The growth indices and haematological profile of cultured fish were recorded after four months of feeding experiment.
The final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, condition factor, FCR, PER, FER were significantly higher in fishes that received PD +IbSPHWE than those that received either PD, PD + IbSPCEE or PD+ IbSPP only. The same trend was observed with the RBC, Hb, HCT, WBC and the PLT and its indices. The study has demonstrated that incorporation of the hot-water extracts of I. batatas could improve the growth performance and increase immunocompetence of O. niloticus as evidenced by improved haematological profile.

References

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  • Abonyi, F.O., Iyi, E.O., Machebe, N.S. (2012). Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(15), 3709-3712. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.3103
  • Adewolu, M.A., (2008). Potentials of Sweet potato Ipomoea batatas leaf meal as dietary ingredient for Tilapia zilli fingerlings. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7(3), 444-449. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2008.444.449
  • Afuang W., Siddhuraju P., Becker K. (2003). Comparative nutritional evaluation of raw, methanol extracted residues and methanol extracts of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves on Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture Research, 34, 1147-1159. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2109.2003.00920.x
  • Ajeel, S.G. and Al-Faragi, J.K. (2013). Effect of ginger, Zingiber officinale and garlic, Allium sativum to enhance health of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 37, 59-62. https://doi.org/10.30539/iraqijvm.v37i1.332
  • An, L.V., (2004). Sweet potato leaves for growing pigs. Biomass yield, digestion and nutritive value. Doctor’s thesis, Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, pp: 49.
  • Baleta, F.N., Lin, Y-C., Chen, Y-Y., Chen, J-C. Yeh, S-T. Putra, D.F., Huang, C-L. (2013). Efficacy of Sargassum oligocystum Extract on the Innate Immunity of White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus. Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan, 40(4), 241-256.
  • Bedford, M. (2000). Removal of antibiotic growth promoters from poultry diets: implications and strategies to minimize subsequent problems. Worlds Poultry Science Journal, 56, 347-365. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS20000024
  • Citarasu, T. (2010). Herbal biomedicines: a new opportunity for aquaculture industry. Aquaculture International, 18, 403-414. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-009-9253-7
  • Chakraborty, S.B., Hancz, C., (2011). Application of phytochemicals as immunostimulant, antipathogenic and antistress agents in finfish culture. Reviews in Aquaculture 3, 103-119. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-5131.2011.01048.x
  • De Silva, S., Anderson, T. (1995). Fish Nutrition in Aquaculture, first ed., Chapman and Hall, London.
  • Dügenci, S.K., Arda, N., Candan, A. (2003). Some medicinal plants as immunostimulant for fish. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 88, 99-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00182-X
  • Ekenyem, B.U., Madubuike, F.N. (2006). An assessment of Ipomoea asarifiolia leaf meal as feed ingredient in broiler chick production. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 5, 46-50. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2006.46.50
  • Fazio, F., Marafioti, S., Torre, A., Sanfilippo, M., Panzera, M., Faggio, C. (2013). Haematological and serum protein profiles of Mugil cephalus: effect of two different habitats. Ichthyological Research, 60(1), 36-42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10228-012-0303-1
  • Fujiki, K., Matsuyama, H., Yano, T. (1992). Effect of hot-water extracts from marine algae on resistance of carp and yellowtail against bacterial infections. Science Bulletin, Faculty of Agriculture. Kyushu University, 47, 137-141.
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  • Garg, C.K., Sahu, N.P, Shamna, N, Deo, A.D., Kumar, S., Maiti, M.K. (2019). Effect of dietary Houttuynia cordata leaf meal and leaf extract on the growth performance, nutrient utilization and expression of IGF‐I gene in Labeo rohita. Aquaculture Nutrition, 1110. https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.12891
  • Haghighi, M., Rohani, M.S. (2013). The effects of powdered ginger, Zingiber officinale on the haematological and immunological parameters of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Medicinal Plant and Herbal Therapy Research, 1, 8-12.
  • Harikrishnan, R., Balasundaram, C., Heo, M.S. (2012). Effect of Inonotus obliquus enriched diet on hematology, immune response, and disease protection in kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against Vibrio harveyi. Aquaculture, 344-349, 48-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.03.010
  • Hevrøy, E., Espe, M., Waagbø, R., Sandnes, K., Ruud, M., Hemre, G.I. (2005). Nutrient utilization in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed increased levels of fish protein hydrolysate during a period of fast growth. Aquaculture Nutrition, 11, 301-313. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2095.2005.00357.x
  • Hong, N.T.T., Wanapat, M., Wachirapakorn, C.K.P., Rowlinson, P. (2003). Effect of timing of initial cutting and subsequent cutting on yields and chemical compositions of cassava hay and its supplementation on lactating dairy cows. Asian- Australian Journal of Animal Science, 16, 1763-1769. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.1763
  • Hou, W.Y., Chen, J.C., (2005). The immunostimulatory effect of the hot-water extract of G. tenuistipitata on the white shrimp L. vannamei and its resistance against V. alginolyticus. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 19, 127-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2004.11.009
  • Ishida, H., H. Suzuno, N. Sugiyama, S. Imami, T. Tadokoro and A. Meakawa, (2000). Nutritive value on chemical components of leaves, stalks and stem of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Poir). Food Chemistry, 68, 359-367. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00206-X
  • Jafarian, H., T.G. Azari, A.A. Kamali, M. Soltani, R.M. Habibi, (2007). The use of probiotic Bacillus bioencapsulated with Artemia urmiana nauplii for the growth and survival in Acipenser persicus larvae. Agriculture Science and Natural Resources, 14, 77-87.
  • Jain, M., Ganju, L., Katiyal, A., Padwad, Y., Mishra, K.P., Chanda, S. (2008). Effect of Hippophae rhamnoides leaf extract against Dengue virus infection in human blood-derived macrophages. Phytomedication, 15, 793-799. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2008.04.017
  • Kaleeswaran, B., Ilavenil, S., Ravikumar, S., (2011). Growth response, feed conversion ratio and antiprotease activity of Cynodon dactylon (L.) mixed diet in Catla catla. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 10, 511-517. https://doi.org/10.3923/javaa.2011.511.517
  • Labh, S.N., Shakya, S.R., Gupta, S.K., Kumar, N., Kayastha, B.L. (2017). Effects of lapsi fruits (Choerospondias axillaris Roxburgh, 1832) on immunity and survival of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, 5, 571-577.
  • Li, P., Lewis, D.H., Galtin, D.M. (2004). Dietary oligonucleotides from yeast RNA influence immune responses and resistance of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis) to Streptococcus iniae infection. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 16, 561-569. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2003.09.005
  • Noori, A., Nasir, Amar, Y., Jassim, A. (2013). Effect of different dietary proteins and fats on some biochemical blood parametrs in common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio) reared in floating cages. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, 4, 293-298.
  • Nya, E., Austin, B. (2009). Use of dietary ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, as an immunostimulant to control Aeromonas hydrophila infections in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Fish Diseases, 32, 971-977. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2009.01101.x
  • Olmedo Sanchez, J.A., Curiel Flores, A., Orozco, J.R. (2009). The effect of a herbal growth promoter feed additive on shrimp performance. Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 4, 1022-1024.
  • Pavaraj, M., Balasubramanian, V., Baskaran, S., Ramasamy, P. (2011). Development of immunity by extract of medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum on common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.). Research Journal of Immunology, 4, 12-18. https://doi.org/10.3923/rji.2011.12.18
  • Pratheepa, V., Sukumaran, N. (2014). Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio. Peer Journal 2, e671. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.671
  • Punitha, S.M.J., Babu, M.M., Sivaram, V., Shankar, V.S., Dhas, S.A., Mahesh, T.C., Immanuel, G., Citarasu, T., (2008). Immunostimulating influence of herbal biomedicines on non- specific immunity in Grouper Epinephelus tauvina juvenile against Vibrio harveyi in- fection. Aquaculture International 16, 511-523. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-007-9162-6
  • Putra, A., Santoso, U., Lee, M.-C., Nan, F.-H. (2013). Effects of dietary katuk leaf extract on growth performance, feeding behavior and water quality of grouper Epinephelus coioides. Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology, 2, 17-25.
  • Raa, J., Rorstad, G., Engstad, R.E., Robertson, B. (1992). The use of immunostimulants to increase resistance of aquatic organisms to microbial infections. In: Shariff, M., Subasinghe, R.P., Arthur, J.R. (Eds.), Disease in Asian Aquaculture. Proceedings of the First Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture. Asian Fisheries Society, Philippines, pp. 39-50. 1.
  • Reverter, M., Bontemps, N., Lecchini, D., Banaigs, B., Sasal P. (2014). Use of plant extracts in fish aquaculture as an alternative to chemotherapy: current status and future perspectives. Aquaculture, 433, 50-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.05.048
  • Robertsen, B. (1999). Modulation of the non-specific defence of fish by structurally conserved microbial polymers. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 9, 269-290. https://doi.org/10.1006/fsim.1998.0186
  • Shalaby, A.M., Khattab, Y.A., Abdel Rahman, A.M. (2006). Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Journal of Venomous Animal Toxins 12, 172-201. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1678-91992006000200003
  • Sheikhlar, A., Alimon, A.R., Daud, H., Saad, C.R., Webster, C.D., Meng, G.Y. (2014). White mulberry (Morus alba) foliage methanolic extract can alleviate Aero- monas hydrophila infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The Scientific World Journal, 2014, 592709. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/592709
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Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 1, 1 - 10, 01.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22001

Abstract

References

  • Abd El‐Hakim, N.F., Ahmad, M.H., Azab, E.S., Lashien, M.S., Baghdady, E.S., (2010). Response of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus to diets supplemented with different levels of fennel seeds meal (Foeniculum vulgare). Abbassa‐International Journal for Aquaculture, 3, 215-230.
  • Abonyi, F.O., Iyi, E.O., Machebe, N.S. (2012). Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(15), 3709-3712. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.3103
  • Adewolu, M.A., (2008). Potentials of Sweet potato Ipomoea batatas leaf meal as dietary ingredient for Tilapia zilli fingerlings. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7(3), 444-449. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2008.444.449
  • Afuang W., Siddhuraju P., Becker K. (2003). Comparative nutritional evaluation of raw, methanol extracted residues and methanol extracts of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves on Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture Research, 34, 1147-1159. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2109.2003.00920.x
  • Ajeel, S.G. and Al-Faragi, J.K. (2013). Effect of ginger, Zingiber officinale and garlic, Allium sativum to enhance health of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 37, 59-62. https://doi.org/10.30539/iraqijvm.v37i1.332
  • An, L.V., (2004). Sweet potato leaves for growing pigs. Biomass yield, digestion and nutritive value. Doctor’s thesis, Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, pp: 49.
  • Baleta, F.N., Lin, Y-C., Chen, Y-Y., Chen, J-C. Yeh, S-T. Putra, D.F., Huang, C-L. (2013). Efficacy of Sargassum oligocystum Extract on the Innate Immunity of White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus. Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan, 40(4), 241-256.
  • Bedford, M. (2000). Removal of antibiotic growth promoters from poultry diets: implications and strategies to minimize subsequent problems. Worlds Poultry Science Journal, 56, 347-365. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS20000024
  • Citarasu, T. (2010). Herbal biomedicines: a new opportunity for aquaculture industry. Aquaculture International, 18, 403-414. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-009-9253-7
  • Chakraborty, S.B., Hancz, C., (2011). Application of phytochemicals as immunostimulant, antipathogenic and antistress agents in finfish culture. Reviews in Aquaculture 3, 103-119. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-5131.2011.01048.x
  • De Silva, S., Anderson, T. (1995). Fish Nutrition in Aquaculture, first ed., Chapman and Hall, London.
  • Dügenci, S.K., Arda, N., Candan, A. (2003). Some medicinal plants as immunostimulant for fish. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 88, 99-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00182-X
  • Ekenyem, B.U., Madubuike, F.N. (2006). An assessment of Ipomoea asarifiolia leaf meal as feed ingredient in broiler chick production. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 5, 46-50. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2006.46.50
  • Fazio, F., Marafioti, S., Torre, A., Sanfilippo, M., Panzera, M., Faggio, C. (2013). Haematological and serum protein profiles of Mugil cephalus: effect of two different habitats. Ichthyological Research, 60(1), 36-42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10228-012-0303-1
  • Fujiki, K., Matsuyama, H., Yano, T. (1992). Effect of hot-water extracts from marine algae on resistance of carp and yellowtail against bacterial infections. Science Bulletin, Faculty of Agriculture. Kyushu University, 47, 137-141.
  • Galina, J., Yin, G., Ardó, L., Jeney, Z. (2009). The use of immunostimulating herbs in fish. An overview of research. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 35, 669-676. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-009-9304-z
  • Ganzon-Naret, E.S. (2014). Utilization of Moringa oleifera leaf meals as plant protein sources at different inclusion levels in fish meal based diets fed to Lates calcarifer, ABAH Bioflux 6(2), 158-167.
  • Garg, C.K., Sahu, N.P, Shamna, N, Deo, A.D., Kumar, S., Maiti, M.K. (2019). Effect of dietary Houttuynia cordata leaf meal and leaf extract on the growth performance, nutrient utilization and expression of IGF‐I gene in Labeo rohita. Aquaculture Nutrition, 1110. https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.12891
  • Haghighi, M., Rohani, M.S. (2013). The effects of powdered ginger, Zingiber officinale on the haematological and immunological parameters of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Medicinal Plant and Herbal Therapy Research, 1, 8-12.
  • Harikrishnan, R., Balasundaram, C., Heo, M.S. (2012). Effect of Inonotus obliquus enriched diet on hematology, immune response, and disease protection in kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against Vibrio harveyi. Aquaculture, 344-349, 48-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.03.010
  • Hevrøy, E., Espe, M., Waagbø, R., Sandnes, K., Ruud, M., Hemre, G.I. (2005). Nutrient utilization in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed increased levels of fish protein hydrolysate during a period of fast growth. Aquaculture Nutrition, 11, 301-313. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2095.2005.00357.x
  • Hong, N.T.T., Wanapat, M., Wachirapakorn, C.K.P., Rowlinson, P. (2003). Effect of timing of initial cutting and subsequent cutting on yields and chemical compositions of cassava hay and its supplementation on lactating dairy cows. Asian- Australian Journal of Animal Science, 16, 1763-1769. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.1763
  • Hou, W.Y., Chen, J.C., (2005). The immunostimulatory effect of the hot-water extract of G. tenuistipitata on the white shrimp L. vannamei and its resistance against V. alginolyticus. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 19, 127-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2004.11.009
  • Ishida, H., H. Suzuno, N. Sugiyama, S. Imami, T. Tadokoro and A. Meakawa, (2000). Nutritive value on chemical components of leaves, stalks and stem of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Poir). Food Chemistry, 68, 359-367. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00206-X
  • Jafarian, H., T.G. Azari, A.A. Kamali, M. Soltani, R.M. Habibi, (2007). The use of probiotic Bacillus bioencapsulated with Artemia urmiana nauplii for the growth and survival in Acipenser persicus larvae. Agriculture Science and Natural Resources, 14, 77-87.
  • Jain, M., Ganju, L., Katiyal, A., Padwad, Y., Mishra, K.P., Chanda, S. (2008). Effect of Hippophae rhamnoides leaf extract against Dengue virus infection in human blood-derived macrophages. Phytomedication, 15, 793-799. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2008.04.017
  • Kaleeswaran, B., Ilavenil, S., Ravikumar, S., (2011). Growth response, feed conversion ratio and antiprotease activity of Cynodon dactylon (L.) mixed diet in Catla catla. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 10, 511-517. https://doi.org/10.3923/javaa.2011.511.517
  • Labh, S.N., Shakya, S.R., Gupta, S.K., Kumar, N., Kayastha, B.L. (2017). Effects of lapsi fruits (Choerospondias axillaris Roxburgh, 1832) on immunity and survival of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, 5, 571-577.
  • Li, P., Lewis, D.H., Galtin, D.M. (2004). Dietary oligonucleotides from yeast RNA influence immune responses and resistance of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis) to Streptococcus iniae infection. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 16, 561-569. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2003.09.005
  • Noori, A., Nasir, Amar, Y., Jassim, A. (2013). Effect of different dietary proteins and fats on some biochemical blood parametrs in common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio) reared in floating cages. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, 4, 293-298.
  • Nya, E., Austin, B. (2009). Use of dietary ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, as an immunostimulant to control Aeromonas hydrophila infections in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Fish Diseases, 32, 971-977. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2009.01101.x
  • Olmedo Sanchez, J.A., Curiel Flores, A., Orozco, J.R. (2009). The effect of a herbal growth promoter feed additive on shrimp performance. Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 4, 1022-1024.
  • Pavaraj, M., Balasubramanian, V., Baskaran, S., Ramasamy, P. (2011). Development of immunity by extract of medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum on common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.). Research Journal of Immunology, 4, 12-18. https://doi.org/10.3923/rji.2011.12.18
  • Pratheepa, V., Sukumaran, N. (2014). Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio. Peer Journal 2, e671. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.671
  • Punitha, S.M.J., Babu, M.M., Sivaram, V., Shankar, V.S., Dhas, S.A., Mahesh, T.C., Immanuel, G., Citarasu, T., (2008). Immunostimulating influence of herbal biomedicines on non- specific immunity in Grouper Epinephelus tauvina juvenile against Vibrio harveyi in- fection. Aquaculture International 16, 511-523. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-007-9162-6
  • Putra, A., Santoso, U., Lee, M.-C., Nan, F.-H. (2013). Effects of dietary katuk leaf extract on growth performance, feeding behavior and water quality of grouper Epinephelus coioides. Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology, 2, 17-25.
  • Raa, J., Rorstad, G., Engstad, R.E., Robertson, B. (1992). The use of immunostimulants to increase resistance of aquatic organisms to microbial infections. In: Shariff, M., Subasinghe, R.P., Arthur, J.R. (Eds.), Disease in Asian Aquaculture. Proceedings of the First Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture. Asian Fisheries Society, Philippines, pp. 39-50. 1.
  • Reverter, M., Bontemps, N., Lecchini, D., Banaigs, B., Sasal P. (2014). Use of plant extracts in fish aquaculture as an alternative to chemotherapy: current status and future perspectives. Aquaculture, 433, 50-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.05.048
  • Robertsen, B. (1999). Modulation of the non-specific defence of fish by structurally conserved microbial polymers. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 9, 269-290. https://doi.org/10.1006/fsim.1998.0186
  • Shalaby, A.M., Khattab, Y.A., Abdel Rahman, A.M. (2006). Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Journal of Venomous Animal Toxins 12, 172-201. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1678-91992006000200003
  • Sheikhlar, A., Alimon, A.R., Daud, H., Saad, C.R., Webster, C.D., Meng, G.Y. (2014). White mulberry (Morus alba) foliage methanolic extract can alleviate Aero- monas hydrophila infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The Scientific World Journal, 2014, 592709. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/592709
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Marine and Freshwater Biology
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Francıs BALETA (Primary Author)
National Research Council of the Philippines
0000-0002-5266-1893
Philippines


Patricia CANDELARIA This is me
Partido State University
0000-0001-6399-9622
Philippines


Diomerl Edward BALDO This is me
Partido State University
0000-0001-7122-5301
Philippines


Love Joy BALETA This is me
Partido State University
0000-0003-2701-9687
Philippines


Lander PLANTADO This is me
Partido State University
0000-0002-1697-2272
Philippines


Mylene NAVARRO This is me
Partido State University
0000-0002-9450-1126
Philippines

Supporting Institution The research work was supported by the University Research and Exploration Fund of Partido State University, Goa, Camarines Sur dated September 16, 2020.
Thanks The authors thank the Campus Dean of Partido State University Sagnay Campus for providing necessary infrastructure facility to carry out the work. The technical assistance of Mr. Jericho Encinas is likewise acknowledged.
Publication Date January 1, 2022
Application Date March 14, 2021
Acceptance Date May 20, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { aquatres896299, journal = {Aquatic Research}, eissn = {2618-6365}, address = {Esnaf Mah. Pembe Köşk Sok. Kentplus Kadıköy Sitesi B Blok D435 Kadıköy-İstanbul}, publisher = {Nuray ERKAN ÖZDEN}, year = {2022}, volume = {5}, number = {1}, pages = {1 - 10}, doi = {10.3153/AR22001}, title = {Dietary incorporation of Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas shoots improved growth performance and haematological profile of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Hapa Nets}, key = {cite}, author = {Baleta, Francıs and Candelarıa, Patricia and Baldo, Diomerl Edward and Baleta, Love Joy and Plantado, Lander and Navarro, Mylene} }
APA Baleta, F. , Candelarıa, P. , Baldo, D. E. , Baleta, L. J. , Plantado, L. & Navarro, M. (2022). Dietary incorporation of Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas shoots improved growth performance and haematological profile of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Hapa Nets . Aquatic Research , 5 (1) , 1-10 . DOI: 10.3153/AR22001
MLA Baleta, F. , Candelarıa, P. , Baldo, D. E. , Baleta, L. J. , Plantado, L. , Navarro, M. "Dietary incorporation of Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas shoots improved growth performance and haematological profile of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Hapa Nets" . Aquatic Research 5 (2022 ): 1-10 <http://aquatres.scientificwebjournals.com/en/pub/issue/65647/896299>
Chicago Baleta, F. , Candelarıa, P. , Baldo, D. E. , Baleta, L. J. , Plantado, L. , Navarro, M. "Dietary incorporation of Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas shoots improved growth performance and haematological profile of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Hapa Nets". Aquatic Research 5 (2022 ): 1-10
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary incorporation of Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas shoots improved growth performance and haematological profile of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Hapa Nets AU - Francıs Baleta , Patricia Candelarıa , Diomerl Edward Baldo , Love Joy Baleta , Lander Plantado , Mylene Navarro Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.3153/AR22001 DO - 10.3153/AR22001 T2 - Aquatic Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 10 VL - 5 IS - 1 SN - -2618-6365 M3 - doi: 10.3153/AR22001 UR - https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22001 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Aquatic Research Dietary incorporation of Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas shoots improved growth performance and haematological profile of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Hapa Nets %A Francıs Baleta , Patricia Candelarıa , Diomerl Edward Baldo , Love Joy Baleta , Lander Plantado , Mylene Navarro %T Dietary incorporation of Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas shoots improved growth performance and haematological profile of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Hapa Nets %D 2022 %J Aquatic Research %P -2618-6365 %V 5 %N 1 %R doi: 10.3153/AR22001 %U 10.3153/AR22001
ISNAD Baleta, Francıs , Candelarıa, Patricia , Baldo, Diomerl Edward , Baleta, Love Joy , Plantado, Lander , Navarro, Mylene . "Dietary incorporation of Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas shoots improved growth performance and haematological profile of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Hapa Nets". Aquatic Research 5 / 1 (January 2022): 1-10 . https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22001
AMA Baleta F. , Candelarıa P. , Baldo D. E. , Baleta L. J. , Plantado L. , Navarro M. Dietary incorporation of Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas shoots improved growth performance and haematological profile of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Hapa Nets. Aquat Res. 2022; 5(1): 1-10.
Vancouver Baleta F. , Candelarıa P. , Baldo D. E. , Baleta L. J. , Plantado L. , Navarro M. Dietary incorporation of Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas shoots improved growth performance and haematological profile of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Hapa Nets. Aquatic Research. 2022; 5(1): 1-10.
IEEE F. Baleta , P. Candelarıa , D. E. Baldo , L. J. Baleta , L. Plantado and M. Navarro , "Dietary incorporation of Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas shoots improved growth performance and haematological profile of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Hapa Nets", Aquatic Research, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-10, Jan. 2022, doi:10.3153/AR22001

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