Year 2020, Volume 3 , Issue 4, Pages 177 - 187 2020-06-13

Possible effects of COVID-19 on sustainability of aquatic ecosystems: An overview

Adams IYIOLA [1] , Berchie ASIEDU [2] , Femi John FAWOLE [3]


Coronavirus is an envelope virus that is persistent in the environment and easily inactivated by the use of chlorine disinfectants. It is a virus novel to human and the first occurrence (SARS-CoV) was detected in Hong Kong in 2003 and a new strain (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China in 2019. The pandemic had spread throughout the world and is spread through respiratory droplets and fecal-oral routes. The use of chlorine disinfectants has been reported to be the best economic solution to the virus and its use has been on the rise leading to increased wastewater generation. Presently, the existence of coronavirus has been reported in wastewater from indoor and outdoor sources and exposure of the aquatic ecosystem to this elevated concentration of chlorine in wastewater can threaten its sustainability and biodiversity. When aerosols or leakages occur from the sources of wastewater, humans can be infected by the virus by inhaling through the respiratory outlets. This review, therefore, highlights the possible presence and effect of the virus in waste water-based and how the aquatic environment can be sustained.
Wastewater, Disinfectants, Sustainability, Aquatic environment, COVID-19
  • Adhikari, S.P., Meng, S., Wu, Y., Mao, Y., Ye, R., Wang, Q., Sun, C., Sylvia, S., Rozelle, S., Raat, H., Zhou, H. (2020). Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention, and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9, 29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00646-x
  • Aquatech (2020, March 17). Coronavirus and water/wastewater: A round-up of global advice. http://www.aquatechtrade.com/news/article/coronavirus-and-water-wastewater-global-advice/ (accessed 16.05.2020).
  • Casanova, L., Rutala, W.A., Weber, D.J., Sobsey, M.D., (2009). Survival of surrogate coronaviruses in water. Water Research, 43(7), 1893-1898. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.02.002
  • Brandt, R., (2020, April 5). The team tracks coronavirus in wastewater. University of Arizona. http://www.futurity.org/coronavirus-in-wastewater-2326802-2/ (accessed 27.04.2020).
  • Chan, J.F., Yuan, S., Kok, K., To, K.K., Chu, H., Yang, J., Xing, F., Liu, J., Yip, C.C., Poon, R.W., Tsoi, H., Lo, S.K., Chan, K., Poon, V.K., Chan, W., Ip, J.D., Cai, J., Cheng, V.C., Chen, H., Hui, C.K., Yuen, K., (2020). A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet, 395, 514-523. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9
  • Chattopadhyay, S., Taft, S. (2018, August 1). Exposure Pathways to High- Consequence Pathogens in the Wastewater Collection and Treatment Systems, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. EPA/600/R-18/221, 2018. https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?Lab=NHSRC&dirEntryId=341856 (accessed 27.04.2020)
  • China Ministry of Ecology and Environment (2020, April 21). Will viruses and disinfection affect water quality? The ministry of ecology and Environment responded. http://www.mee.gov.cn/ywgz/ssthjbh/dbssthjgl/202003/t20200311_768408.shtml (in Chinese) (accessed 27.05.2020).
  • China Ministry of Ecology and Environment (2020, April 21). Will viruses and disinfection affect water quality? The ministry of ecology and Environment responded. http://www.mee.gov.cn/ywgz/ssthjbh/dbssthjgl/202003/t20200311_768408.shtml (in Chinese) (accessed 27.05.2020).
  • Choudri, B.S., Charabi, Y. (2019). Health effects associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal. Water Environment Research, 91, 976-983. https://doi.org/10.1002/wer.1157
  • Ding, Z., Qian, H., Xu, B., Huang, Y., Miao, T., Yen, H., Xiao, S., Cui, L., Wu, X., Shao, W., Song, Y., Sha, L., Zhou, L., Xu, Y., Zhu, B., Li, Y., (2020). Toilets dominate environmental detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus in a hospital. medRxiv, https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.03.20052175
  • Goldstein, J. (2020, April 6). Bronx Zoo Tiger is sick with the coronavirus. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/06/nyregion/bronx-zoo-tiger-coronavirus.html (accessed 16.04.2020).
  • Gundy, P.M., Gerba, C.P., Pepper, I.L., (2009). Survival of Coronaviruses in Water and Wastewater. Food Environmental Virology, 1, 10-14.https://doi.org/10.1007/s12560-008-9001-6
  • Hoffman, M., Kliene-Weber, H., Kruger, N., Herrler, T., Erichsen, S., Schiergens, T.S., Herrler, G., Wu, N.-H., Nitsche, A. Müller, M.A. Drosten, C., Pöhlmann, S. (2020). SARS-CoC-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS@ and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell, 181(2), 271-280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052
  • Holshue, M.L., DeBolt, C., Lindquist, S., Lofy, K.H., Wiesman, J., Bruce, H., Spitters, C., Ericson, K., Wilkerson, S., Tural, A., Diaz, G., Cohn, A. et al. (2020). First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine, 382(10), 929-936. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001191
  • Hung, L.S. (2003). The SARS epidemic in Hong Kong: what lessons have we learned?, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 96, 374-378. https://doi.org/10.1177/014107680309600803
  • Ignatus, T.S., Yu, M.B., Yugho, L., Wong, T.W., Tam, W., Chan, A.T., Lee, J.H.W., Leung, D.Y.C., Ho, T. (2004). Evidence of air-borne transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus. The New England Journal of Medicine, 350(17), 1731-1739. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa032867
  • Igomu, T. (2020, April, 12). Health: wastewater flowing in communities can reveal the presence of COVID-19- Scientists. Punch Newspaper. https://healthwise.punchng.com/waste-water-flowing-in-communities-can-reveal-presence-of-covid-19-scientists/ (accessed 16.04.2020).
  • Kampf, G., Todt, D., Pfaender, S., Steinmann, E. (2020). Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. Journal of Hospital Infection, 104(2020), 246-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.01.022
  • Leste-Lasserre, C. (2020). Coronavirus found in Paris sewage points to early warning system. Science, 368, 6489. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc3799
  • Letko, M., Marzi, A., Munster, V. (2020). Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for SARS-CoV-2 and other lineage beta coronaviruses. Nature Microbiology, 5(4), 562-569. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-0688-y
  • Leung, W.K., To, K.F., Chan, P.K.S., Chan, H.L.Y., Wu, A.K.L., Lee, N., Yuen, K.Y., Sung, J.J.Y. (2003). Enteric involvement of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection, Gastroenterology, 125, 1011-1017. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(03)01215-0
  • Li, W., Jain, T., Ishida, K., Liu, H. (2017). A mechanistic understanding of the degradation of trace organic contaminants by UV/hydrogen peroxide, UV/persulfate, and UV/free chlorine for water reuse. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 3, 128-138. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6EW00242K
  • Mallapaty, S. (2020). How sewage could reveal the true scale of the coronavirus outbreak. Nature, 580, 176-177. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00973-x
  • Medema, G., Heijnen, L., Elsinga, G., Italiaander, R., Brouwer, A., (2020). Presence of SARS-Coronavirus-2 in sewage. medRxiv, https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.29.20045880
  • Naddeo, V., Liu, H. (2020). Editorial Perspectives: 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): what is its fate in the urban water cycle and how can the water research community respond? Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 6, 1213. https://doi.org/10.1039/d0ew90015j
  • OSHA (2020). Standards and directives for COVID-19, United States of America Occupational Safety and Health Administration, https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/covid-19/standards.html (accessed 17.05.2020)
  • Pieres, J.S.M. Chu, C., Cheng, V.C.C., Chan, K.S., Hung, I.F.N., Poon, L.L.M., et al. (2003). Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of corona virus-asso-ciated SARS pneumonia: A prospective study. The Lancet, 361, 1761-1772. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13412-5
  • Raphael, R.A., Sattar, S.A., Springthorpe, V.S., (1985). Long-term survival of human rotavirus in raw and treated river water. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 31(2), 124-128. https://doi.org/10.1139/m85-024
  • Regan, H., (2020, February 12). How can the coronavirus spread through bathroom pipes? Experts are investigating in Hong Kong. https://edition.cnn.com/2020/02/12/asia/hong-kong-coronavirus-pipes-intl-hnk/index.html (accessed 25.04.2020).
  • Rismanbaf, A., Zarei, S. (2020). Liver and kidney injuries in COVID-19 and their effects on drug therapy; a letter to the editor. Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, 8(1), 17e.
  • Sanders, J., (2020, February 29). Chlorine toxicity in fish. Aquatic veterinary services. https://cafishvet.com/2020/02/29/chlorine-toxicity-in-fish/ (accessed 26.04.2020).
  • Siddharta, A., Pfaender, S., Vielle, N.J., Dijkman, R., Friesland, M., Becker, B., Yang, J., Engelmann, M., Todt, D., Windisch, M.P., Brill, F.H., Steinmann, J., Steinmann, J., Becker, S., Alves, M.P., Pietschmann, T., Eickmann, M., Thiel, V., Steinmann, E. (2017). Virucidal activity of World Health Organization-recommended formulations against enveloped viruses, including zika, ebola, and emerging coronaviruses. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 215(6), 902-906. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix046
  • Tu Delft, (2020, May 12). Tu Delft Global Drinking Water. https://d1rkab7tlqy5f1.cloudfront.net/Websections/Global%20Drinking%20Water/Colofon%20COVID-19%20virus%20in%20water.pdf (accessed 18.05.2020).
  • Van Doremalen, N., Bushmaker, T., Hamilton, E.S., Morris, D.H., Holbrook, M.G., Gamble, A., Williamson, B.N., Tamin, A., Harcourt, J.L., Thornburg, N.J., Gerber, S.I., Lloyd-Smith, J.O., De Wit, E., Munster, V.J. (2020). Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. The New England Journal of Medicine, 382, 1564-1567. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2004973
  • Wang, X.W., Li, J.S., Jin, M., Zhen, B., Kong, Q.X., Song, N., Xiao, W.J., Yin, J., Wei, W., Wang, G.J., Si, B.Y., Guo, B.Z., Liu, C., Ou, G.R., Wang, M.N., Fang, T.Y., Chao, F.H., Li, J, W. (2005). Study on the resistance of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus. Journal of Virological Methods, 126(1-2), 171-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2005.02.005
  • WHO (2014, March 11). Infection Prevention and Control of Epidemic- and Pandemic-Prone Acute Respiratory Infections in Health Care. Geneva: World Health Organization; Annex G, Use of disinfectants: alcohol and bleach. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK214356/ (accessed 22.04.2020).
  • WHO (2020a, January 17). Novel Coronavirus-Japan (Ex-China). https://www.who.int/csr/don/17-january-2020-novel-coronavirus-japan-ex-china/en/ (accessed 21.04.2020).
  • WHO (2020b, May 18). World Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. https://covid19.who.int/?gclid=CjwKCAjwwYP2BRBGEiwAkoBpApqSYnC_7CfA-c2jptAfCg38TEzlKBiY2Zl_GLcxi_aIpJdUm7L-qBoC-dUQAvD_BwE (accessed 18.05.2020).
  • WHO (2020c, April 23). Water, sanitation, hygiene, and waste management for the COVID-19 virus: interim guidance. COVID-19: Infection prevention and control / WASH Published on 23 April, 2020. WHO REFERENCE NUMBER: WHO/2019-nCoV/IPC_WASH/2020.3. https://www.who.int/publications-detail/water-sanitation-hygiene-and-waste-management-for-covid-19 (accessed 18.05.2020).
  • WHO (2020d, March 9). Guidelines for Drinking - Water Quality: Fourth edition incorporating the first addendum. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/254637/9%20789241549950-eng.pdf;jsessionid=1C04AABC036E337664A11D4E18A9FEFA?sequence=1 (accessed 18.05.2020).
  • WHO (2020e, January 9). Results of Round II of the WHO Household Water Treatment Evaluation Scheme. Published December, 2019. https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/results-round-2-scheme-to-evaluate-houshold-water-treatment-tech/en/ (accessed 18.05.2020).
  • WHO (2020f, May 5). Hand Hygiene: Why, How & When? https://www.who.int/gpsc/5may/Hand_Hygiene_Why_How_and_When_Brochure.pdf (accessed 18.05.2020).
  • WHO (2020g, March 3). Water, sanitation, hygiene and waste management for the COVID-19 virus. Technical brief by the World Health Organization. WHO reference number: WHO/2019-nCoV/IPC_WASH/2020.1 https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/water-sanitation-hygiene-and-waste-management-for-the-covid-19-virus-interim-guidance (accessed 18.05.2020).
  • Wigginton, K.R., Ye, Y., Ellenberg, R.M. (2015). Emerging investigators series: the source and fate of pandemic viruses in the urban water cycle. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 1(6), 735-746. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5EW00125K
  • Wölfel, R., Corman, V.M., Guggemos, W., Seilmaier, M., Zange, S., Müller, M.A., Niemayer, D., Jones, T.C. Vollmar, P., Rothe, C., Hoelscher, M., Bleicker, T., Brünink, S., Schneider, J., Ehmann, R., Zwirglmaier, K., Drosten, C., Wendtner, C. (2020). Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019. Nature, 581, 465-469. ttps://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2196-x
  • Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zhang C, Liu, S., Zhao, P., Liu, H., Zhu, L., Tai, Y., Bai, C., Gao, T., Song, J., Xia, P., Dong, J., Zhao, J., Wang, F.-S. (2020). Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8(4), 420-422. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30076-X
  • Zhang, H., Kang, Z., Gong, H., Xu, D., Wang, J., Li, Z., Cui, X., Xiao, J., Meng, T., Zhou, W., Liu, J., Xu, H. (2020a). The digestive system is a potential route of 2019-nCov infection: a bioinformatics analysis based on single-cell transcriptomes. bioRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.30.927806
  • Zhang, H., Tang, W., Chen, Y., Yin, W. (2020b). Disinfection threatens aquatic ecosystems. Science, 368(6487), 146-147. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb8905
  • Zhang, Y., Chen, C., Zhu, C., Wang, D., Song, J., Song, Y., Zhen, W., Feng, Z., Wu, G., Xu, J., and Xu, W. (2020c). Isolation of 2019-nCoV from a stool specimen of a laboratory-confirmed case of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). China CDC Weekly, 2(8), 123-124 (In Chinese). https://doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2020.033
Primary Language en
Subjects Marine and Freshwater Biology
Journal Section Review Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-2166-7299
Author: Adams IYIOLA (Primary Author)
Institution: Osun State University, College of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management
Country: Nigeria


Orcid: 0000-0002-9879-718X
Author: Berchie ASIEDU
Institution: University of Energy and Natural Resources, School of Natural Resources, Department of Fisheries and Water Resources
Country: Ghana


Orcid: 0000-0003-4645-6962
Author: Femi John FAWOLE
Institution: University of Ilorin, Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries
Country: Nigeria


Dates

Application Date : May 28, 2020
Acceptance Date : June 11, 2020
Publication Date : June 13, 2020

Bibtex @review article { aquatres743810, journal = {Aquatic Research}, issn = {}, eissn = {2618-6365}, address = {Esnaf Mah. Pembe Köşk Sok. Kentplus Kadıköy Sitesi B Blok D435 Kadıköy-İstanbul}, publisher = {Nuray ERKAN ÖZDEN}, year = {2020}, volume = {3}, pages = {177 - 187}, doi = {10.3153/AR20016}, title = {Possible effects of COVID-19 on sustainability of aquatic ecosystems: An overview}, key = {cite}, author = {Iyıola, Adams and Asıedu, Berchie and Fawole, Femi John} }
APA Iyıola, A , Asıedu, B , Fawole, F . (2020). Possible effects of COVID-19 on sustainability of aquatic ecosystems: An overview . Aquatic Research , 3 (4) , 177-187 . DOI: 10.3153/AR20016
MLA Iyıola, A , Asıedu, B , Fawole, F . "Possible effects of COVID-19 on sustainability of aquatic ecosystems: An overview" . Aquatic Research 3 (2020 ): 177-187 <http://aquatres.scientificwebjournals.com/en/pub/issue/54898/743810>
Chicago Iyıola, A , Asıedu, B , Fawole, F . "Possible effects of COVID-19 on sustainability of aquatic ecosystems: An overview". Aquatic Research 3 (2020 ): 177-187
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Possible effects of COVID-19 on sustainability of aquatic ecosystems: An overview AU - Adams Iyıola , Berchie Asıedu , Femi John Fawole Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.3153/AR20016 DO - 10.3153/AR20016 T2 - Aquatic Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 177 EP - 187 VL - 3 IS - 4 SN - -2618-6365 M3 - doi: 10.3153/AR20016 UR - https://doi.org/10.3153/AR20016 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Aquatic Research Possible effects of COVID-19 on sustainability of aquatic ecosystems: An overview %A Adams Iyıola , Berchie Asıedu , Femi John Fawole %T Possible effects of COVID-19 on sustainability of aquatic ecosystems: An overview %D 2020 %J Aquatic Research %P -2618-6365 %V 3 %N 4 %R doi: 10.3153/AR20016 %U 10.3153/AR20016
ISNAD Iyıola, Adams , Asıedu, Berchie , Fawole, Femi John . "Possible effects of COVID-19 on sustainability of aquatic ecosystems: An overview". Aquatic Research 3 / 4 (June 2020): 177-187 . https://doi.org/10.3153/AR20016
AMA Iyıola A , Asıedu B , Fawole F . Possible effects of COVID-19 on sustainability of aquatic ecosystems: An overview. Aquat Res. 2020; 3(4): 177-187.
Vancouver Iyıola A , Asıedu B , Fawole F . Possible effects of COVID-19 on sustainability of aquatic ecosystems: An overview. Aquatic Research. 2020; 3(4): 177-187.
IEEE A. Iyıola , B. Asıedu and F. Fawole , "Possible effects of COVID-19 on sustainability of aquatic ecosystems: An overview", Aquatic Research, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 177-187, Jun. 2020, doi:10.3153/AR20016