Research Article
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The efficacy of salt treatment for Dactylogyrus extensus (Monogenea) infection in Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Year 2024, Volume: 7 Issue: 1, 1 - 7, 03.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.3153/AR24001

Abstract

Salt is widely recommended as a cost-effective and readily available compound against freshwater fish parasites in aquaculture; however, a limited number of studies provide scientific evidence regarding the efficacy of salt use despite its frequent use as an anti-parasitic in fish culture. Dactylogyrus is a severe gill parasite, causing considerable losses in freshwater aquaculture. The current study aimed to evaluate the anti-parasitic efficacy of salt against Dactylogyrus extensus in Cyprinus carpio. In vitro, mortality of D. extensus showed time- and concentration-dependent patterns. In vivo, the anti-parasitic effectiveness of salt to D. extensus was assessed at 23.56% after exposure to salt at a concentration of 1.25 g/L for 10 min. Anti-parasitic efficacy of salt in short-term application in carp can be categorised between slight and mild against monogenean, D. extensus.

References

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  • Buchmann, K., Bresciani, J., Jappe, C. (2004). Effects of formalin treatment on epithelial structure and mucous cell densities in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), skin. Journal of Fish Diseases, 27:99–104. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2003.00519.x
  • Burka, J.F., Hammell, K.L., Horsberg, T.E., Johnson, G. R., Rainnie, D. J., Speare, D. J. (1997). Drugs in salmonid aquaculture - A review. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 20:333–349. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2885.1997.00094.x
  • De Boeck, G., Vlaeminck, A., Van Der Linden, A., Blust, R. (2000). The energy metabolism of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) when exposed to salt stress: An increase in energy expenditure or effects of starvation? Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 73, 102–111. https://doi.org/10.1086/316717
  • Diggles, B.K., Arlinghaus, R., Browman, H.I., Cooke, S.J., Cowx, I.G., Kasumyan, A.O., Key, B., Rose, J.D., Sawynok, W., Schwab, A., Skiftesvik, A.B. (2017). Response to: Responses of larval zebrafish to low pH immersion assay. Comment on Lopez-Luna et al. Comment. Journal of Experimental Biology, 220, 3192–3194. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.162834
  • Dzika, E., Dzikowiec, M., Hoffmann, R.W. (2009). Description of the development of the attachment and copulatory apparatus of Dactylogyrus extensus from Cyprinus carpio var. koi. Helminthologia, 46, 39-44. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11687-009-0008-9
  • Fajer-Ávila, E.J., Velásquez-Medina, S.P., Betancourt-Lozano, M. (2007). Effectiveness of treatments against eggs, and adults of Haliotrema sp. and Euryhaliotrema sp. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalinae) infecting red snapper, Lutjanus guttatus. Aquaculture, 264, 66-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.12.035
  • García-Magaña, L., Rodríguez-Santiago, M.A., Grano-Maldonado, M.I., Jiménez-Vasconcelos, L., Guerra-Santos, J. (2019). The effectiveness of sodium chloride and formalin in trichodiniasis of farmed freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in southeastern Mexico. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, 47, 164–174. https://doi.org/10.3856/vol47-issue1-fulltext-18
  • Gonzales A.P., Yoshioka E.T., Mathews P.D., Mertins, O., Chaves, F.C., Videira, M.N., Tavares-Dias, M. (2020). Anthelminthic efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil (Poaceae) against monogenean parasites of Colossoma macropomum (Serrasalmidae), and blood and histopathological effects. Aquaculture, 528, 735500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735500
  • Hu, Y., Liu, L., Liu, G.L., Tu, X., Wang, G.X., Ling, F. (2017). Synthesis and anthelmintic activity of arctigenin derivatives against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 27, 3310-3316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.06.023
  • Hutson, K.S., Brazenor, A.K., Vaughan, D.B., Trujillo-González, A. (2018). Monogenean Parasite Cultures: Current Techniques and Recent Advances. Advances in Parasitology, 99, 61-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2018.01.002
  • Jerônimo, G.T., Marchiori N.C., de Pádua, S.B., Neto, J.D., Pilarski, F., Ishikawa, M.M., Martins, M.L. (2012). Trichodina colisae (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae): New parasite records for two freshwater fish species farmed in. Revista Brasileria de Parasitologia Veterinaria, 21, 366-371. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612012005000008
  • Kayis, S., Ozcelep, T., Capkin, E., Altinok, I. (2009). Protozoan and metazoan parasites of cultured fish in Turkey and their applied treatments. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh, 61, 93-102. https://doi.org/10.46989/001c.20550
  • Kotob, M.H., Menanteau-Ledouble, S., Kumar, G., Abdelzaher, M., El-Matbouli, M. (2016). The impact of co-infections on fish: a review. Veterinary Research, 47, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13567-016-0383-4
  • Kumar, S., Raman, R.P., Kumar, K., Pandey, P.K., Kumar, N., Mohanty, S., Kumar, A. (2012) In vitro and in vivo antiparasitic activity of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. in Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758). Parasitology Research, 110, 1795-1800. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2701-0
  • Lieke, T., Meinelt, T., Hoseinifar, S.H., Pan, B., Straus, D.L., Steinberg, C.E. (2020). Sustainable aquaculture requires environmental-friendly treatment strategies for fish diseases. Rev Aquaculture, 12, 943-965. https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12365
  • Pimentel-Acosta, C.A., Morales-Serna, F.N., Chávez-Sánchez, M.C., Lara, H.H., Pestryakov, A., Bogdanchikova, N., Fajer-Ávila, E.J. (2019). Efficacy of silver nanoparticles against the adults and eggs of monogenean parasites of fish. Parasitology Research, 118, 1741-1749. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06315-9
  • Pool, D.W., Chubb, J.C. (1987). Dactylogyrus extensus Mueller and van Cleave, 1932 and Dactylogyrus vastator Nybelin, 1924 on gills of common carp Cyprinus carpio. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 7, 15-17.
  • Reed, P., Francis-floyd, R., Klinger, R., Petty, D. (2012). Monogenean Parasites of Fish. 1–10 https://fisheries.tamu.edu/files/2013/09/Monogenean-Parasites-of-Fish.pdf (accessed 28 08 2023). https://doi.org/10.32473/edis-fa033-2012
  • Rintamäki-Kinnunen, P., Valtonen, E.T. (1996). Finnish salmon resistant to Gyrodactylus salaris: A long-term study at fish farms. International Journal for Parasitology, 26, 723-732. https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7519(96)00046-X
  • Schelkle, B., Doetjes, R., Cable, J. (2011). The salt myth revealed: Treatment of gyrodactylid infections on ornamental guppies, Poecilia reticulata. Aquaculture, 311, 74-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.11.036
  • Soylu, E., Emre, Y. (2007). Monogenean and cestode parasites of Pseudophoxinus antalyae, Bogutskaya 1992 and Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758 from Kepez Antalya, Turkey. Bulletin-European Association of Fish Pathologists, 27, 23-28
  • Tancredo, K.R., Marchiori, N.C., Pereira, S.A., Martins, M.L. (2019). Toxicity of formalin for fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio var. koi and in vitro efficacy against Dactylogyrus minutus Kulwièc, 1927 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae). Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 43, 46-53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-018-1056-1
  • Tavares-Dias, M. (2018). Current knowledge on use of essential oils as alternative treatment against fish parasites. Aquatic Living Resources, 31, 13. https://doi.org/10.1051/alr/2018001
  • Trujillo-González, A., Constantinoiu, C.C., Rowe, R., Hutson, K.S. (2015). Tracking transparent monogenean parasites on fish from infection to maturity. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 4, 316-322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2015.06.002
  • Velasco-Santamaría, Y.M., Cruz-Casallas, P.E. (2008). Behavioural and gill histopathological effects of acute exposure to sodium chloride in moneda (Metynnis orinocensis). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 25, 365-372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2007.12.002
  • Wang, G., Zhou, Z., Cheng, C., Yao, J., Yang, Z. (2008). Osthol and isopimpinellin from Fructus cnidii for the control of Dactylogyrus intermedius in Carassius auratus. Veterinary Parasitology, 158, 144-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.07.034
  • Whittington, I.D. (2005). Monogenea Monopisthocotylea (ectoparasitic flukes). In: Rohde K (ed) Marine Parasitology. CSIRO, pp 63-72.
  • Zhang, X.P., Li, W.X., Ai, T.S., Zou, H., Wu, S.G., Wang, G.T. (2014). The efficacy of four common anthelmintic drugs and traditional Chinese medicinal plant extracts to control Dactylogyrus vastator (Monogenea). Aquaculture, (420-421), 302-307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.09.022
Year 2024, Volume: 7 Issue: 1, 1 - 7, 03.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.3153/AR24001

Abstract

References

  • Anonymous (2023a). Turkish Statistical Institute. https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Search/Search?text=su%20%C3%BCr%C3%BCnleri&dil=1 (accessed 26.09.2023)
  • Anonymous (2023b). Su Ürünleri İstatistikleri. Balıkçılık ve Su Ürünleri Genel Müdürlüğü. https://www.tarimorman.gov.tr/sgb/Belgeler/SagMenuVeriler/BSGM.pdf (accessed 26.09.2023)
  • Buchmann, K., Bresciani, J., Jappe, C. (2004). Effects of formalin treatment on epithelial structure and mucous cell densities in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), skin. Journal of Fish Diseases, 27:99–104. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2003.00519.x
  • Burka, J.F., Hammell, K.L., Horsberg, T.E., Johnson, G. R., Rainnie, D. J., Speare, D. J. (1997). Drugs in salmonid aquaculture - A review. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 20:333–349. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2885.1997.00094.x
  • De Boeck, G., Vlaeminck, A., Van Der Linden, A., Blust, R. (2000). The energy metabolism of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) when exposed to salt stress: An increase in energy expenditure or effects of starvation? Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 73, 102–111. https://doi.org/10.1086/316717
  • Diggles, B.K., Arlinghaus, R., Browman, H.I., Cooke, S.J., Cowx, I.G., Kasumyan, A.O., Key, B., Rose, J.D., Sawynok, W., Schwab, A., Skiftesvik, A.B. (2017). Response to: Responses of larval zebrafish to low pH immersion assay. Comment on Lopez-Luna et al. Comment. Journal of Experimental Biology, 220, 3192–3194. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.162834
  • Dzika, E., Dzikowiec, M., Hoffmann, R.W. (2009). Description of the development of the attachment and copulatory apparatus of Dactylogyrus extensus from Cyprinus carpio var. koi. Helminthologia, 46, 39-44. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11687-009-0008-9
  • Fajer-Ávila, E.J., Velásquez-Medina, S.P., Betancourt-Lozano, M. (2007). Effectiveness of treatments against eggs, and adults of Haliotrema sp. and Euryhaliotrema sp. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalinae) infecting red snapper, Lutjanus guttatus. Aquaculture, 264, 66-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.12.035
  • García-Magaña, L., Rodríguez-Santiago, M.A., Grano-Maldonado, M.I., Jiménez-Vasconcelos, L., Guerra-Santos, J. (2019). The effectiveness of sodium chloride and formalin in trichodiniasis of farmed freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in southeastern Mexico. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, 47, 164–174. https://doi.org/10.3856/vol47-issue1-fulltext-18
  • Gonzales A.P., Yoshioka E.T., Mathews P.D., Mertins, O., Chaves, F.C., Videira, M.N., Tavares-Dias, M. (2020). Anthelminthic efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil (Poaceae) against monogenean parasites of Colossoma macropomum (Serrasalmidae), and blood and histopathological effects. Aquaculture, 528, 735500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735500
  • Hu, Y., Liu, L., Liu, G.L., Tu, X., Wang, G.X., Ling, F. (2017). Synthesis and anthelmintic activity of arctigenin derivatives against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 27, 3310-3316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.06.023
  • Hutson, K.S., Brazenor, A.K., Vaughan, D.B., Trujillo-González, A. (2018). Monogenean Parasite Cultures: Current Techniques and Recent Advances. Advances in Parasitology, 99, 61-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2018.01.002
  • Jerônimo, G.T., Marchiori N.C., de Pádua, S.B., Neto, J.D., Pilarski, F., Ishikawa, M.M., Martins, M.L. (2012). Trichodina colisae (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae): New parasite records for two freshwater fish species farmed in. Revista Brasileria de Parasitologia Veterinaria, 21, 366-371. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612012005000008
  • Kayis, S., Ozcelep, T., Capkin, E., Altinok, I. (2009). Protozoan and metazoan parasites of cultured fish in Turkey and their applied treatments. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh, 61, 93-102. https://doi.org/10.46989/001c.20550
  • Kotob, M.H., Menanteau-Ledouble, S., Kumar, G., Abdelzaher, M., El-Matbouli, M. (2016). The impact of co-infections on fish: a review. Veterinary Research, 47, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13567-016-0383-4
  • Kumar, S., Raman, R.P., Kumar, K., Pandey, P.K., Kumar, N., Mohanty, S., Kumar, A. (2012) In vitro and in vivo antiparasitic activity of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. in Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758). Parasitology Research, 110, 1795-1800. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2701-0
  • Lieke, T., Meinelt, T., Hoseinifar, S.H., Pan, B., Straus, D.L., Steinberg, C.E. (2020). Sustainable aquaculture requires environmental-friendly treatment strategies for fish diseases. Rev Aquaculture, 12, 943-965. https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12365
  • Pimentel-Acosta, C.A., Morales-Serna, F.N., Chávez-Sánchez, M.C., Lara, H.H., Pestryakov, A., Bogdanchikova, N., Fajer-Ávila, E.J. (2019). Efficacy of silver nanoparticles against the adults and eggs of monogenean parasites of fish. Parasitology Research, 118, 1741-1749. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06315-9
  • Pool, D.W., Chubb, J.C. (1987). Dactylogyrus extensus Mueller and van Cleave, 1932 and Dactylogyrus vastator Nybelin, 1924 on gills of common carp Cyprinus carpio. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 7, 15-17.
  • Reed, P., Francis-floyd, R., Klinger, R., Petty, D. (2012). Monogenean Parasites of Fish. 1–10 https://fisheries.tamu.edu/files/2013/09/Monogenean-Parasites-of-Fish.pdf (accessed 28 08 2023). https://doi.org/10.32473/edis-fa033-2012
  • Rintamäki-Kinnunen, P., Valtonen, E.T. (1996). Finnish salmon resistant to Gyrodactylus salaris: A long-term study at fish farms. International Journal for Parasitology, 26, 723-732. https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7519(96)00046-X
  • Schelkle, B., Doetjes, R., Cable, J. (2011). The salt myth revealed: Treatment of gyrodactylid infections on ornamental guppies, Poecilia reticulata. Aquaculture, 311, 74-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.11.036
  • Soylu, E., Emre, Y. (2007). Monogenean and cestode parasites of Pseudophoxinus antalyae, Bogutskaya 1992 and Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758 from Kepez Antalya, Turkey. Bulletin-European Association of Fish Pathologists, 27, 23-28
  • Tancredo, K.R., Marchiori, N.C., Pereira, S.A., Martins, M.L. (2019). Toxicity of formalin for fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio var. koi and in vitro efficacy against Dactylogyrus minutus Kulwièc, 1927 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae). Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 43, 46-53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-018-1056-1
  • Tavares-Dias, M. (2018). Current knowledge on use of essential oils as alternative treatment against fish parasites. Aquatic Living Resources, 31, 13. https://doi.org/10.1051/alr/2018001
  • Trujillo-González, A., Constantinoiu, C.C., Rowe, R., Hutson, K.S. (2015). Tracking transparent monogenean parasites on fish from infection to maturity. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 4, 316-322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2015.06.002
  • Velasco-Santamaría, Y.M., Cruz-Casallas, P.E. (2008). Behavioural and gill histopathological effects of acute exposure to sodium chloride in moneda (Metynnis orinocensis). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 25, 365-372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2007.12.002
  • Wang, G., Zhou, Z., Cheng, C., Yao, J., Yang, Z. (2008). Osthol and isopimpinellin from Fructus cnidii for the control of Dactylogyrus intermedius in Carassius auratus. Veterinary Parasitology, 158, 144-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.07.034
  • Whittington, I.D. (2005). Monogenea Monopisthocotylea (ectoparasitic flukes). In: Rohde K (ed) Marine Parasitology. CSIRO, pp 63-72.
  • Zhang, X.P., Li, W.X., Ai, T.S., Zou, H., Wu, S.G., Wang, G.T. (2014). The efficacy of four common anthelmintic drugs and traditional Chinese medicinal plant extracts to control Dactylogyrus vastator (Monogenea). Aquaculture, (420-421), 302-307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.09.022

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Fish Pests and Diseases
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Hijran YAVUZCAN YILDIZ 0000-0001-6567-7467

Early Pub Date November 16, 2023
Publication Date January 3, 2024
Submission Date August 1, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2024Volume: 7 Issue: 1

Cite

APA YAVUZCAN YILDIZ, H. (2024). The efficacy of salt treatment for Dactylogyrus extensus (Monogenea) infection in Carp (Cyprinus carpio). Aquatic Research, 7(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.3153/AR24001

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