Research Article
BibTex RIS Cite

Investigation of different lighting (LED, HPS and FLO) in aquaponics systems for joint production of different plants (Lettuce, Parsley and Cress) and koi carp

Year 2023, Volume: 6 Issue: 1, 43 - 51, 01.01.2023
https://doi.org/10.3153/AR23005

Abstract

We investigated the effects of growth performance of three plant species parsley (Petroselinum crispum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and cress (Lepidium sativum) under the three different lighting sources, Light-Emitting Diode lamp (LED; 200w), High-Pressure Sodium lamp (HPS; 200w) and Fluorescent lamp (FLO; 200w) in an aquaponic system. A total number of 43 koi fish (Cyprinus carpio var. koi) with 3628 g total biomass (84.4 g per individual) were used. The fish used in the experiment recorded 36% growth and reached an average individual weight of 132.7 g at the end of the experiment. The parsley plant was measured as 8.76 ±7.32 g; 7.45 ±4.13 g; 2.04 ±1.96 g weight after 45 days, the lettuce plant was 54.09 ±25.60 g; 60.83 ±19.39 g; 17.81 ±6.40 g weight after 54 days, cress plant was 1.03 ±0.58 g; 1.15 ±0.46 g; 1.31 ±0.58 g weight after 42 days, under the HPS, LED, and FLO light sources, respectively. HPS and LED light sources in lettuce and parsley showed better plant development than the FLO, while no significant difference occurred in cress plants under three light conditions. We conclude that using HPS or LED lights in indoor aquaponics has the potential to produce good quality and adequate amounts of plants. 

Supporting Institution

This work was supported by the Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Istanbul University

Thanks

We thank Istanbul University, Faculty of Aquatic Sciences, Limnology Laboratory’s staff who helped us with the water parameters measurement.

References

  • APHA (American Public Health Administration), (2005). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th ed. American Public Health Administration, Washington, D.C
  • Bhaskar, P., Pyne, S.K., Ray, A.K., (2015). Growth performance study of Koi fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) by utilization of poultry viscera, as a potential fish feed ingredient, replacing fishmeal. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 4(1), 31-37. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40093-014-0082-y
  • Bögner, M., Schwenke, C., Gürtzgen, T., Bögner, D., Slater, M.J. (2018). Effect of ambient light intensity on growth performance and diurnal stress response of juvenile starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Aquacultural Engineering, 83, 20-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2018.08.001
  • Buzby, K.M., Waterland, N.L., Semmens, K.J., Lin, L.S., (2016). Evaluating aquaponic crops in a freshwater flow-through fish culture system. Aquaculture, 460, 15-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.03.046
  • Dueck, T.A., Janse, J., Eveleens, B.A., Kempkes, F.L.K., Marcelis, L.F.M. (2011). Growth of tomatoes under hybrid LED and HPS lighting. In International Symposium on Advanced Technologies and Management Towards Sustainable Greenhouse Ecosystems: Greensys 952, 335-342. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.952.42
  • Forchino, A.A., Lourguioui, H., Brigolin, D., Pastres, R. (2017). Aquaponics and sustainability: The comparison of two different aquaponic techniques using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Aquacultural Engineering, 77, 80-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2017.03.002
  • Fukuda, N. (2019). Plant Growth and Physiological Responses to Light Conditions. Plant Factory Using Artificial Light. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-813973-8.00008-7
  • Goddek, S., Delaide, B., Mankasingh, U., Ragnarsdottir, K.V., Jijakli, H., Thorarinsdottir, R. (2015). Challenges of sustainable and commercial aquaponics. Sustainability, 7(4), 4199–4224. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044199
  • Goddek, S., Espinal, C.A., Delaide, B., Jijakli, M.H., Schmautz, Z., Wuertz, S., Keesman, K. J. (2016). Navigating towards decoupled aquaponic systems: A system dynamics design approach. Water, 8(7), 303. https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070303
  • Hernández, R., Kubota, C. (2015). Physiological, morphological, and energy-use efficiency comparisons of LED and HPS supplemental lighting for cucumber transplant production. HortScience, 50(3), 351-357. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.50.3.351
  • Hussain, T., Verma, A.K., Tiwari, V.K., Prakash, C., Rathore, G., Shete, A.P., Nuwansi, K.K.T. (2014). Optimizing Koi Carp, Cyprinus Carpio Var. Koi (Linnaeus, 1758), stocking density and nutrient recycling with spinach in an aquaponic system. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 45(6), 652-661. https://doi.org/10.1111/jwas.12159
  • Hussain, T., Verma, A.K., Tiwari, V.K., Prakash, C., Rathore, G., Shete, A., P., Saharan, N. (2015). Effect of water flow rates on growth of Cyprinus carpio Var. Koi (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) and spinach plant in aquaponic system. Aquaculture International, 23(1), 369-384. 10.1007/s10499-014-9821-3.
  • Junge, R., König, B., Villarroel, M., Komives, T., Jijakli, M.H. (2017). Strategic points in aquaponics. Water, 9, 182. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030182
  • Karakatsouli, N., Papoutsoglou, E.S., Sotiropoulos, N., Mourtikas, D., Stigen-Martinsen, T., Papoutsoglou, S.E. (2010). Effects of light spectrum, rearing density and light intensity on growth performance of scaled and mirror common carp Cyprinus carpio reared under recirculating system conditions. Aquacultural Engineering, 42(3), 121-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2010.01.001
  • Lin, K.H., Huang, M.Y., Huang, W.D., Hsu, M.H., Yang, Z.W., Yang, C.M. (2013). The effects of red, blue, and white light-emitting diodes on the growth, development, and edible quality of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata). Scientia Horticulturae, 150, 86-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.10.002
  • Liu, H., Fu, Y., Yu, J., Liu, H. (2016). Accumulation and primary metabolism of nitrate in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Youmaicai) grown under three different light sources. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 47(17), 1994-2002. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2016.1225076
  • Martineau, V., Lefsrud, M., Naznin, M.T., Kopsell, D.A. (2012). Comparison of light-emitting diode and high-pressure sodium light treatments for hydroponics growth of Boston lettuce. HortScience, 47(4), 477-482. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.47.4.477
  • Massa, G.D., Kim, H.H., Wheeler R. M., Mitchell, C.A., (2008). Plant Productivity in response to LED lighting. HortScience, 43(7), 1951-1956. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.43.7.1951
  • Mitchell, C.A., Both, A.J., Bourget, M., Burr, J.F., Kubota, C., Lopez, R.G., Morrow, R.C. Runkle, E.S. (2012). LEDs: The future of greenhouse lighting. Chronica Horticultura, 52(1), 2012.
  • Nelson, J.A., Bugbee, B. (2014). Economic analysis of greenhouse lighting: light emitting diodes vs. high intensity discharge fixtures. PloS One, 9(6), e99010. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099010
  • Nuwansi, K.K.T., Verma, A.K., Prakash, C., Tiwari, V.K., Chandrakant, M.H., Shete, A.P., Prabhath. G.P.W.A. (2016). Effect of water flow rate on polyculture of Koi Carp (Cyprinus Carpio Var. Koi) and Goldfish (Carassius auratus) with water spinach (Ipomoea Aquatica) in recirculating aquaponic system. Aquaculture International, 24(1), 385-393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-015-9932-5
  • Nuwansi, K.K.T., Verma, A.K., Rathore, G., Prakash, C., Chandrakant, M.H., Prabhath, G.P.W.A. (2019). Utilization of phytoremediated aquaculture wastewater for production of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio var. koi) and gotukola (Centella asiatica) in an aquaponics. Aquaculture, 507, 361-369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.04.053
  • Nuwansi, K.K.T., Verma, A.K., Rathore, G., Chandrakant, M.H., Prabhath, G.P.W.A., Peter, R.M. (2020). Effect of hydraulic loading rate on the growth of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio var. koi) and Gotukola (Centella asiatica (L.)) using phytoremediated aquaculture wastewater in aquaponics. Aquaculture International, 28(2), 639-652. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-019-00485-0
  • Oliver, L.P., Coyle, S.D., Bright, L.A., Shultz, R.C., Hager, J.V., Tidwell, J.H. (2018). Comparison of Four Artificial Light Technologies for Indoor Aquaponic Production of Swiss Chard, Beta vulgaris, and Kale, Brassica oleracea. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 49(5), 837-844. https://doi.org/10.1111/jwas.12471
  • Olle, M., Viršile, A. (2013). The effects of light-emitting diode lighting on greenhouse plant growth and quality. Agricultural and Food Science, 22(2), 223-234. https://doi.org/10.23986/afsci.7897
  • Rakocy, J.E. (2012). Aquaponics: integrating fish and plant culture. Aquaculture Production Systems, 1, 343-386. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118250105.ch14 Roosta, H.R. (2014). Effects of foliar spray of K on mint, radish, parsley and coriander plants in aquaponic system. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 37(14), 2236-2254. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2014.920385
  • Savidov, N., Books, A.B. (2004). Evaluation and development of aquaponics production and product market capabilities in Alberta. Crop Diversification Centre South, Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development.
  • Singh, D., Basu, C., Meinhardt-Wollweber, M., Roth, B. (2015). LEDs for energy efficient greenhouse lighting. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 49, 139-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.117
  • Somerville, C., Cohen, M., Pantanella, E., Stankus A., Lovatelli, A. (2014). Small-scale aquaponic food production; intetegrated fish and plant farming. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No:589, Roma.
  • Tielmann, M., Schulz, C., Meyer, S. (2017). The effect of light intensity on performance of larval pike-perch (Sander lucioperca). Aquacultural Engineering, 77, 61- 71.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2017.03.001
  • Xu, Y. (2019). Nature and Source of Light for Plant Factory. In Plant Factory Using Artificial Light (pp. 47-69). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-813973-8.00002-6
  • Yanes, A.R., Martinez, P., Ahmad, R. (2020). Towards automated aquaponics: A review on monitoring, IoT, and smart systems. Journal of Cleaner Production, 121571. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121571
  • Yavuzcan Yildiz, H., Robaina, L., Pirhonen, J., Mente, E., Domínguez, D., Parisi, G. (2017). Fish welfare in aquaponic systems: its relation to water quality with an emphasis on feed and faeces—a review. Water, 9(1), 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010013
Year 2023, Volume: 6 Issue: 1, 43 - 51, 01.01.2023
https://doi.org/10.3153/AR23005

Abstract

References

  • APHA (American Public Health Administration), (2005). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th ed. American Public Health Administration, Washington, D.C
  • Bhaskar, P., Pyne, S.K., Ray, A.K., (2015). Growth performance study of Koi fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) by utilization of poultry viscera, as a potential fish feed ingredient, replacing fishmeal. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 4(1), 31-37. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40093-014-0082-y
  • Bögner, M., Schwenke, C., Gürtzgen, T., Bögner, D., Slater, M.J. (2018). Effect of ambient light intensity on growth performance and diurnal stress response of juvenile starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Aquacultural Engineering, 83, 20-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2018.08.001
  • Buzby, K.M., Waterland, N.L., Semmens, K.J., Lin, L.S., (2016). Evaluating aquaponic crops in a freshwater flow-through fish culture system. Aquaculture, 460, 15-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.03.046
  • Dueck, T.A., Janse, J., Eveleens, B.A., Kempkes, F.L.K., Marcelis, L.F.M. (2011). Growth of tomatoes under hybrid LED and HPS lighting. In International Symposium on Advanced Technologies and Management Towards Sustainable Greenhouse Ecosystems: Greensys 952, 335-342. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.952.42
  • Forchino, A.A., Lourguioui, H., Brigolin, D., Pastres, R. (2017). Aquaponics and sustainability: The comparison of two different aquaponic techniques using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Aquacultural Engineering, 77, 80-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2017.03.002
  • Fukuda, N. (2019). Plant Growth and Physiological Responses to Light Conditions. Plant Factory Using Artificial Light. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-813973-8.00008-7
  • Goddek, S., Delaide, B., Mankasingh, U., Ragnarsdottir, K.V., Jijakli, H., Thorarinsdottir, R. (2015). Challenges of sustainable and commercial aquaponics. Sustainability, 7(4), 4199–4224. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044199
  • Goddek, S., Espinal, C.A., Delaide, B., Jijakli, M.H., Schmautz, Z., Wuertz, S., Keesman, K. J. (2016). Navigating towards decoupled aquaponic systems: A system dynamics design approach. Water, 8(7), 303. https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070303
  • Hernández, R., Kubota, C. (2015). Physiological, morphological, and energy-use efficiency comparisons of LED and HPS supplemental lighting for cucumber transplant production. HortScience, 50(3), 351-357. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.50.3.351
  • Hussain, T., Verma, A.K., Tiwari, V.K., Prakash, C., Rathore, G., Shete, A.P., Nuwansi, K.K.T. (2014). Optimizing Koi Carp, Cyprinus Carpio Var. Koi (Linnaeus, 1758), stocking density and nutrient recycling with spinach in an aquaponic system. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 45(6), 652-661. https://doi.org/10.1111/jwas.12159
  • Hussain, T., Verma, A.K., Tiwari, V.K., Prakash, C., Rathore, G., Shete, A., P., Saharan, N. (2015). Effect of water flow rates on growth of Cyprinus carpio Var. Koi (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) and spinach plant in aquaponic system. Aquaculture International, 23(1), 369-384. 10.1007/s10499-014-9821-3.
  • Junge, R., König, B., Villarroel, M., Komives, T., Jijakli, M.H. (2017). Strategic points in aquaponics. Water, 9, 182. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030182
  • Karakatsouli, N., Papoutsoglou, E.S., Sotiropoulos, N., Mourtikas, D., Stigen-Martinsen, T., Papoutsoglou, S.E. (2010). Effects of light spectrum, rearing density and light intensity on growth performance of scaled and mirror common carp Cyprinus carpio reared under recirculating system conditions. Aquacultural Engineering, 42(3), 121-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2010.01.001
  • Lin, K.H., Huang, M.Y., Huang, W.D., Hsu, M.H., Yang, Z.W., Yang, C.M. (2013). The effects of red, blue, and white light-emitting diodes on the growth, development, and edible quality of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata). Scientia Horticulturae, 150, 86-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.10.002
  • Liu, H., Fu, Y., Yu, J., Liu, H. (2016). Accumulation and primary metabolism of nitrate in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Youmaicai) grown under three different light sources. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 47(17), 1994-2002. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2016.1225076
  • Martineau, V., Lefsrud, M., Naznin, M.T., Kopsell, D.A. (2012). Comparison of light-emitting diode and high-pressure sodium light treatments for hydroponics growth of Boston lettuce. HortScience, 47(4), 477-482. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.47.4.477
  • Massa, G.D., Kim, H.H., Wheeler R. M., Mitchell, C.A., (2008). Plant Productivity in response to LED lighting. HortScience, 43(7), 1951-1956. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.43.7.1951
  • Mitchell, C.A., Both, A.J., Bourget, M., Burr, J.F., Kubota, C., Lopez, R.G., Morrow, R.C. Runkle, E.S. (2012). LEDs: The future of greenhouse lighting. Chronica Horticultura, 52(1), 2012.
  • Nelson, J.A., Bugbee, B. (2014). Economic analysis of greenhouse lighting: light emitting diodes vs. high intensity discharge fixtures. PloS One, 9(6), e99010. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099010
  • Nuwansi, K.K.T., Verma, A.K., Prakash, C., Tiwari, V.K., Chandrakant, M.H., Shete, A.P., Prabhath. G.P.W.A. (2016). Effect of water flow rate on polyculture of Koi Carp (Cyprinus Carpio Var. Koi) and Goldfish (Carassius auratus) with water spinach (Ipomoea Aquatica) in recirculating aquaponic system. Aquaculture International, 24(1), 385-393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-015-9932-5
  • Nuwansi, K.K.T., Verma, A.K., Rathore, G., Prakash, C., Chandrakant, M.H., Prabhath, G.P.W.A. (2019). Utilization of phytoremediated aquaculture wastewater for production of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio var. koi) and gotukola (Centella asiatica) in an aquaponics. Aquaculture, 507, 361-369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.04.053
  • Nuwansi, K.K.T., Verma, A.K., Rathore, G., Chandrakant, M.H., Prabhath, G.P.W.A., Peter, R.M. (2020). Effect of hydraulic loading rate on the growth of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio var. koi) and Gotukola (Centella asiatica (L.)) using phytoremediated aquaculture wastewater in aquaponics. Aquaculture International, 28(2), 639-652. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-019-00485-0
  • Oliver, L.P., Coyle, S.D., Bright, L.A., Shultz, R.C., Hager, J.V., Tidwell, J.H. (2018). Comparison of Four Artificial Light Technologies for Indoor Aquaponic Production of Swiss Chard, Beta vulgaris, and Kale, Brassica oleracea. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 49(5), 837-844. https://doi.org/10.1111/jwas.12471
  • Olle, M., Viršile, A. (2013). The effects of light-emitting diode lighting on greenhouse plant growth and quality. Agricultural and Food Science, 22(2), 223-234. https://doi.org/10.23986/afsci.7897
  • Rakocy, J.E. (2012). Aquaponics: integrating fish and plant culture. Aquaculture Production Systems, 1, 343-386. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118250105.ch14 Roosta, H.R. (2014). Effects of foliar spray of K on mint, radish, parsley and coriander plants in aquaponic system. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 37(14), 2236-2254. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2014.920385
  • Savidov, N., Books, A.B. (2004). Evaluation and development of aquaponics production and product market capabilities in Alberta. Crop Diversification Centre South, Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development.
  • Singh, D., Basu, C., Meinhardt-Wollweber, M., Roth, B. (2015). LEDs for energy efficient greenhouse lighting. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 49, 139-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.117
  • Somerville, C., Cohen, M., Pantanella, E., Stankus A., Lovatelli, A. (2014). Small-scale aquaponic food production; intetegrated fish and plant farming. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No:589, Roma.
  • Tielmann, M., Schulz, C., Meyer, S. (2017). The effect of light intensity on performance of larval pike-perch (Sander lucioperca). Aquacultural Engineering, 77, 61- 71.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2017.03.001
  • Xu, Y. (2019). Nature and Source of Light for Plant Factory. In Plant Factory Using Artificial Light (pp. 47-69). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-813973-8.00002-6
  • Yanes, A.R., Martinez, P., Ahmad, R. (2020). Towards automated aquaponics: A review on monitoring, IoT, and smart systems. Journal of Cleaner Production, 121571. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121571
  • Yavuzcan Yildiz, H., Robaina, L., Pirhonen, J., Mente, E., Domínguez, D., Parisi, G. (2017). Fish welfare in aquaponic systems: its relation to water quality with an emphasis on feed and faeces—a review. Water, 9(1), 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010013

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Hydrobiology
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Devrim MEMİŞ 0000-0001-7378-0165

Gökhan TUNÇELLİ 0000-0003-1708-7272

Merve TINKIR 0000-0003-2807-2789

Mehmet Hakan ERK 0000-0002-2053-4988

Project Number 27335
Publication Date January 1, 2023
Submission Date October 2, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 6 Issue: 1

Cite

APA MEMİŞ, D., TUNÇELLİ, G., TINKIR, M., ERK, M. H. (2023). Investigation of different lighting (LED, HPS and FLO) in aquaponics systems for joint production of different plants (Lettuce, Parsley and Cress) and koi carp. Aquatic Research, 6(1), 43-51. https://doi.org/10.3153/AR23005

16291

is licensed under a CreativeCommons Attribtion-ShareAlike 4.0 International Licence 14628   1325927040

Diamond Open Access refers to a scholarly publication model in which journals and platforms do not charge fees to either authors or readers.

Open Access Statement:

This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.

Archiving Policy:

Archiving is done according to TÜBİTAK ULAKBİM "DergiPark" publication policy (LOCKSS).