Research Article
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Importance and applicability analysis of the health and safety measures taken against the coronavirus disease on merchant vessels

Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 3, 171 - 185, 01.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22017

Abstract

The coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has affected seafarers worldwide. This paper demonstrates the measures taken to prevent the spread of the coronavirus on merchant ships and evaluates them in terms of importance and applicability. Contamination reducing measures were determined through expert opinion and literature review. While their importance values were calculated using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process method in which the total integral value with optimism index was applied, the applicability levels were revealed using a five-point Likert scale. The imbalance in rest and working hours was clearly seen in the results. Immune system protective measures were the most critical measures; however, two of them have the lowest applicability value among all criteria. They were followed by the measures taken through training, the measures to be applied in case of personnel showing disease symptoms, and the temperature measurement. In terms of the ship locations and ship operations, maintaining physical distance on deck at the port was found more critical. Its applicability level was slightly below average. This paper is the first study in the literature in which the measures taken to prevent the spread of the coronavirus pandemic on merchant ships were demonstrated in detail and evaluated with scientific methods in terms of importance and applicability. The research findings will help companies in the risk assessment process and contribute to the enhancement of the preparedness of the maritime industry for such situations by helping to protect the seafarers’ health and safety.

References

  • Akyildiz, H., Mentes, A. (2017). An integrated risk assessment based on uncertainty analysis for cargo vessel safety. Safety Science. 92, 34-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.09.009
  • Alipour, M., Alighaleh, S., Hafezi, R., Omranievardi, M. (2017). A new hybrid decision framework for prioritizing funding allocation to Iran’s energy sector. Energy, 121, 388-402. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENERGY.2017.01.024
  • Baumler, R., Bhatia, B. S., Kitada, M. (2020). Ship first: Seafarers’ adjustment of records on work and rest hours. Marine Policy, 104186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2020.104186
  • Baygi, F., Mohammadian Khonsari, N., Agoushi, A., Hassani Gelsefid, S., Mahdavi Gorabi, A., & Qorbani, M. (2021). Prevalence and associated factors of psychosocial distress among seafarers during COVID-19 pandemic. BMC Psychiatry, 21(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03197-z
  • Baysal, M.E., Çetin, N.C. (2018). Priority ranking for energy resources in Turkey and investment planning for renewable energy resources. Complex & Intelligent Systems, 4, 261-269. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40747-018-0075-y
  • Buckley, J.J. (1985). Fuzzy hierarchical analysis. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 17, 233-247. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0114(85)90090-9
  • CDC (2020). Interim guidance for ships on managing suspected coronavirus disease 2019. Retrieved on January 8, 2021 from https://www.cdc.gov/quarantine/maritime/recommendations-for-ships.html
  • Chang, D.-Y. (1996). Applications of the extent analysis method on fuzzy AHP. European Journal of Operational Research, 95, 649-655. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(95)00300-2
  • Chang, D.-Y. (1992). Extent Analysis and Synthetic Decision, Optimization Techniques and Applications. World Scientific, Singapore.
  • Dahl, E. (2020). Coronavirus (Covid-19) outbreak on the cruise ship Diamond Princess. International Maritime Health, 71, 5-8. https://doi.org/10.5603/MH.2020.0003
  • Dai, Q., Hu, S., Yan, K., Chen, Z., Chen, B., Cai, T., Zhang, S., Zhang, J., Zheng, J. (2020). Reflection on SARS-CoV-2 infection of container ship seafarers. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 36, 101787. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101787
  • De Felice, F., Petrillo, A., Petrillo, L. (2021). Captive offshoring drivers in the manufacturing industry: criteria and sub-criteria that influence the location choice. International Journal of Production Research, 59(1), 76-94. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2019.1694718
  • Doumbia-Henry, C. (2020). Shipping and COVID-19: protecting seafarers as frontline workers. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 19, 279-293. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13437-020-00217-9
  • Duman, G.M., Tozanli, O., Kongar, E., Gupta, S.M. (2017). A holistic approach for performance evaluation using quantitative and qualitative data: A food industry case study. Expert Systems with Applications, 81, 410-422. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ESWA.2017.03.070
  • Flores-Carrillo, D.A., Sánchez-Fernández, L.P., Sánchez-Pérez, L.A., Carbajal-Hernández, J.J. (2017). Soil moisture Fuzzy Estimation Approach based on Decision-Making. Environmental Modelling & Software, 91, 223-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENVSOFT.2017.01.018
  • ICS (2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19) Guidance for Ship Operators for the Protection of the Health of Seafarers v3. Marisec Publications, London.
  • ILO (2020). Information note on maritime labour issues and coronavirus (COVID-19) : including a joint statement of the Officers of the Special Tripartite Committee of the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006, as amended, 07.04.2020. ILO, Geneva.
  • IMO (2010). ISM Code International Safety Management Code and guidelines on implementation of the ISM Code, Third Edit. ed. International Maritime Organization, London.
  • Kwong, C.K., Bai, H. (2002). A fuzzy AHP approach to the determination of importance weights of customer requirements in quality function deployment. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 13, 367-377. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019984626631
  • Liou, T.-S., Wang, M.-J.J. (1992). Ranking fuzzy numbers with integral value. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 50(3), 247-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0114(92)90223-Q
  • Lucas, D., Jego, C., Jensen, O.C., Lodde, B., Pougnet, R., Dewitte, J.D., Sauvage, T., Jegaden, D. (2021). Seafarers’ mental health in the COVID-19 era: lost at sea?. International Maritime Health, 72(2), 138-141. Luchenko, D., Georgiievskyi, I. (2021). Administrative restrictions in ports: practice of crew rotations during Covid-19 pandemic. Lex Portus, 7(3), 7-31.
  • Onut, S., Soner Kara, S., Efendigil, T. (2008). A hybrid fuzzy MCDM approach to machine tool selection. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 19, 443-453. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10845-008-0095-3
  • Pauksztat, B., Andrei, D.M., Grech, M.R. (2022). Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of seafarers: a comparison using matched samples. Safety Science, 146, 105542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2021.105542
  • Saaty, T.L. (1980). The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw Hill, New York.
  • Şen, C.G., Çınar, G. (2010). Evaluation and pre-allocation of operators with multiple skills: A combined fuzzy AHP and max–min approach. Expert Systems with Applications, 37, 2043-2053. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ESWA.2009.06.075
  • Stannard, S. (2020). COVID-19 in the maritime setting: the challenges, regulations and the international response. International Maritime Health, 71(2), 85-90. https://doi.org/10.5603/IMH.2020.0016
  • The Hindu, n.d. Indian seafarer dies of covid-19 in florida. Retrieved January 10, 2022 from https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/indian-seafarer-dies-of-covid-19-in-florida/article31302638.ece
  • van Laarhoven, P.J.M., Pedrycz, W. (1983). A fuzzy extension of Saaty’s priority theory. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 11, 229-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0114(83)80082-7
  • Wang, Y.-M., Luo, Y., Hua, Z. (2008). On the extent analysis method for fuzzy AHP and its applications. European Journal of Operational Research, 186, 735-747. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.EJOR.2007.01.050 WHO (2020a). Operational considerations for managing COVID-19 cases and outbreaks on board ships: interim guidance, February 24 2020. WHO, Geneva.
  • WHO (2020b). Interim guidance on promoting public health measures in response to COVID-19 on cargo ships and fishing vessels.
  • WHO (2016). Handbook for management of public health events on board ships. WHO, Geneva.
  • Worldometer, n.d. Corona virus cases. Retrieved February 10, 2022 from https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/
  • Xu, L., Peng, J., Wang, M., Yang, J. (2020). Lessons and suggestions to travelers and cruise ships in the fight against COVID-19. An International Journal of Medicine, 114(2), 153-154. https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa270
  • Yuen, K, Lau, H. (2011). A fuzzy group analytical hierarchy process approach for software quality assurance management: Fuzzy logarithmic least squares method, Expert Systems with Applications, 38(2011), 10292-10302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2011.02.057
  • Zadeh, L.A. (1965). Fuzzy sets. Information and Control, 8, 338-353. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0019-9958(65)90241-X

Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 3, 171 - 185, 01.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22017

Abstract

References

  • Akyildiz, H., Mentes, A. (2017). An integrated risk assessment based on uncertainty analysis for cargo vessel safety. Safety Science. 92, 34-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.09.009
  • Alipour, M., Alighaleh, S., Hafezi, R., Omranievardi, M. (2017). A new hybrid decision framework for prioritizing funding allocation to Iran’s energy sector. Energy, 121, 388-402. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENERGY.2017.01.024
  • Baumler, R., Bhatia, B. S., Kitada, M. (2020). Ship first: Seafarers’ adjustment of records on work and rest hours. Marine Policy, 104186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2020.104186
  • Baygi, F., Mohammadian Khonsari, N., Agoushi, A., Hassani Gelsefid, S., Mahdavi Gorabi, A., & Qorbani, M. (2021). Prevalence and associated factors of psychosocial distress among seafarers during COVID-19 pandemic. BMC Psychiatry, 21(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03197-z
  • Baysal, M.E., Çetin, N.C. (2018). Priority ranking for energy resources in Turkey and investment planning for renewable energy resources. Complex & Intelligent Systems, 4, 261-269. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40747-018-0075-y
  • Buckley, J.J. (1985). Fuzzy hierarchical analysis. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 17, 233-247. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0114(85)90090-9
  • CDC (2020). Interim guidance for ships on managing suspected coronavirus disease 2019. Retrieved on January 8, 2021 from https://www.cdc.gov/quarantine/maritime/recommendations-for-ships.html
  • Chang, D.-Y. (1996). Applications of the extent analysis method on fuzzy AHP. European Journal of Operational Research, 95, 649-655. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(95)00300-2
  • Chang, D.-Y. (1992). Extent Analysis and Synthetic Decision, Optimization Techniques and Applications. World Scientific, Singapore.
  • Dahl, E. (2020). Coronavirus (Covid-19) outbreak on the cruise ship Diamond Princess. International Maritime Health, 71, 5-8. https://doi.org/10.5603/MH.2020.0003
  • Dai, Q., Hu, S., Yan, K., Chen, Z., Chen, B., Cai, T., Zhang, S., Zhang, J., Zheng, J. (2020). Reflection on SARS-CoV-2 infection of container ship seafarers. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 36, 101787. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101787
  • De Felice, F., Petrillo, A., Petrillo, L. (2021). Captive offshoring drivers in the manufacturing industry: criteria and sub-criteria that influence the location choice. International Journal of Production Research, 59(1), 76-94. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2019.1694718
  • Doumbia-Henry, C. (2020). Shipping and COVID-19: protecting seafarers as frontline workers. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 19, 279-293. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13437-020-00217-9
  • Duman, G.M., Tozanli, O., Kongar, E., Gupta, S.M. (2017). A holistic approach for performance evaluation using quantitative and qualitative data: A food industry case study. Expert Systems with Applications, 81, 410-422. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ESWA.2017.03.070
  • Flores-Carrillo, D.A., Sánchez-Fernández, L.P., Sánchez-Pérez, L.A., Carbajal-Hernández, J.J. (2017). Soil moisture Fuzzy Estimation Approach based on Decision-Making. Environmental Modelling & Software, 91, 223-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENVSOFT.2017.01.018
  • ICS (2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19) Guidance for Ship Operators for the Protection of the Health of Seafarers v3. Marisec Publications, London.
  • ILO (2020). Information note on maritime labour issues and coronavirus (COVID-19) : including a joint statement of the Officers of the Special Tripartite Committee of the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006, as amended, 07.04.2020. ILO, Geneva.
  • IMO (2010). ISM Code International Safety Management Code and guidelines on implementation of the ISM Code, Third Edit. ed. International Maritime Organization, London.
  • Kwong, C.K., Bai, H. (2002). A fuzzy AHP approach to the determination of importance weights of customer requirements in quality function deployment. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 13, 367-377. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019984626631
  • Liou, T.-S., Wang, M.-J.J. (1992). Ranking fuzzy numbers with integral value. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 50(3), 247-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0114(92)90223-Q
  • Lucas, D., Jego, C., Jensen, O.C., Lodde, B., Pougnet, R., Dewitte, J.D., Sauvage, T., Jegaden, D. (2021). Seafarers’ mental health in the COVID-19 era: lost at sea?. International Maritime Health, 72(2), 138-141. Luchenko, D., Georgiievskyi, I. (2021). Administrative restrictions in ports: practice of crew rotations during Covid-19 pandemic. Lex Portus, 7(3), 7-31.
  • Onut, S., Soner Kara, S., Efendigil, T. (2008). A hybrid fuzzy MCDM approach to machine tool selection. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 19, 443-453. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10845-008-0095-3
  • Pauksztat, B., Andrei, D.M., Grech, M.R. (2022). Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of seafarers: a comparison using matched samples. Safety Science, 146, 105542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2021.105542
  • Saaty, T.L. (1980). The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw Hill, New York.
  • Şen, C.G., Çınar, G. (2010). Evaluation and pre-allocation of operators with multiple skills: A combined fuzzy AHP and max–min approach. Expert Systems with Applications, 37, 2043-2053. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ESWA.2009.06.075
  • Stannard, S. (2020). COVID-19 in the maritime setting: the challenges, regulations and the international response. International Maritime Health, 71(2), 85-90. https://doi.org/10.5603/IMH.2020.0016
  • The Hindu, n.d. Indian seafarer dies of covid-19 in florida. Retrieved January 10, 2022 from https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/indian-seafarer-dies-of-covid-19-in-florida/article31302638.ece
  • van Laarhoven, P.J.M., Pedrycz, W. (1983). A fuzzy extension of Saaty’s priority theory. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 11, 229-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0114(83)80082-7
  • Wang, Y.-M., Luo, Y., Hua, Z. (2008). On the extent analysis method for fuzzy AHP and its applications. European Journal of Operational Research, 186, 735-747. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.EJOR.2007.01.050 WHO (2020a). Operational considerations for managing COVID-19 cases and outbreaks on board ships: interim guidance, February 24 2020. WHO, Geneva.
  • WHO (2020b). Interim guidance on promoting public health measures in response to COVID-19 on cargo ships and fishing vessels.
  • WHO (2016). Handbook for management of public health events on board ships. WHO, Geneva.
  • Worldometer, n.d. Corona virus cases. Retrieved February 10, 2022 from https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/
  • Xu, L., Peng, J., Wang, M., Yang, J. (2020). Lessons and suggestions to travelers and cruise ships in the fight against COVID-19. An International Journal of Medicine, 114(2), 153-154. https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa270
  • Yuen, K, Lau, H. (2011). A fuzzy group analytical hierarchy process approach for software quality assurance management: Fuzzy logarithmic least squares method, Expert Systems with Applications, 38(2011), 10292-10302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2011.02.057
  • Zadeh, L.A. (1965). Fuzzy sets. Information and Control, 8, 338-353. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0019-9958(65)90241-X

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Marine Science
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Tuba KEÇECİ> (Primary Author)
Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Maritime, Department of Maritime Transportation Management Engineering
0000-0001-6259-3858
Türkiye

Thanks The author is grateful to all experts for their comments and suggestion in completing the paper. Those are very constructive to improving this paper.
Publication Date July 1, 2022
Application Date February 14, 2022
Acceptance Date March 27, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { aquatres1073639, journal = {Aquatic Research}, eissn = {2618-6365}, address = {Esnaf Mah. Pembe Köşk Sok. Kentplus Kadıköy Sitesi B Blok D435 Kadıköy-İstanbul}, publisher = {Nuray ERKAN ÖZDEN}, year = {2022}, volume = {5}, number = {3}, pages = {171 - 185}, doi = {10.3153/AR22017}, title = {Importance and applicability analysis of the health and safety measures taken against the coronavirus disease on merchant vessels}, key = {cite}, author = {Keçeci, Tuba} }
APA Keçeci, T. (2022). Importance and applicability analysis of the health and safety measures taken against the coronavirus disease on merchant vessels . Aquatic Research , 5 (3) , 171-185 . DOI: 10.3153/AR22017
MLA Keçeci, T. "Importance and applicability analysis of the health and safety measures taken against the coronavirus disease on merchant vessels" . Aquatic Research 5 (2022 ): 171-185 <http://aquatres.scientificwebjournals.com/en/pub/issue/69220/1073639>
Chicago Keçeci, T. "Importance and applicability analysis of the health and safety measures taken against the coronavirus disease on merchant vessels". Aquatic Research 5 (2022 ): 171-185
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Importance and applicability analysis of the health and safety measures taken against the coronavirus disease on merchant vessels AU - Tuba Keçeci Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.3153/AR22017 DO - 10.3153/AR22017 T2 - Aquatic Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 171 EP - 185 VL - 5 IS - 3 SN - -2618-6365 M3 - doi: 10.3153/AR22017 UR - https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22017 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Aquatic Research Importance and applicability analysis of the health and safety measures taken against the coronavirus disease on merchant vessels %A Tuba Keçeci %T Importance and applicability analysis of the health and safety measures taken against the coronavirus disease on merchant vessels %D 2022 %J Aquatic Research %P -2618-6365 %V 5 %N 3 %R doi: 10.3153/AR22017 %U 10.3153/AR22017
ISNAD Keçeci, Tuba . "Importance and applicability analysis of the health and safety measures taken against the coronavirus disease on merchant vessels". Aquatic Research 5 / 3 (July 2022): 171-185 . https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22017
AMA Keçeci T. Importance and applicability analysis of the health and safety measures taken against the coronavirus disease on merchant vessels. Aquat Res. 2022; 5(3): 171-185.
Vancouver Keçeci T. Importance and applicability analysis of the health and safety measures taken against the coronavirus disease on merchant vessels. Aquatic Research. 2022; 5(3): 171-185.
IEEE T. Keçeci , "Importance and applicability analysis of the health and safety measures taken against the coronavirus disease on merchant vessels", Aquatic Research, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 171-185, Jul. 2022, doi:10.3153/AR22017

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