Research Article
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Distribution of soft-bottom benthic molluscs in the Gulf of Oran (Western Algeria)

Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 3, 209 - 218, 01.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22020

Abstract

A total of 46 samples were taken in the softbottom of the Gulf of Oran, in order to study the nature of the sediments and the spatial distribution of the mollusc communities. As a result of sampling in the study area, at depth range (30 m -106 m), a total of 29 species were identified, included in two classes: Gastropoda and Bivalvia. The use of multivariate statistical analyzes, as well as particle size analysis, made it possible to identify the main mollusc communities. Six mollusc communities were defined from faunistic and sedimentologic affinities. The malacological fauna of the Gulf of Oran is dominated by Saccella commutata (33.33%), Limatula subauriculata (20.83%) and Nucula sulcata (20.83%). The main ecological stocks are mixicole and coastal detritus species. The malacofauna of the Gulf of Oran is scarce and less diversified due to the nature of the soft bottoms (sand and gravel) and the absence of terrigenous inputs.

References

  • AFNOR (1996). Sols: reconnaissance et essais - Analyse granulométrique - Méthode par tamisage à sec après lavage. NF P94-056-Normes - Afnor. Available online: https://www.boutique.afnor.org/ (accessed November 2020).
  • Amar, Y. (1998). Etude des peuplements macro-benthiques du golfe d’Arzew. Magister Thesis, ISMAL (Alger), 216p. + annexes, 70 p.
  • Bakalem, A., (1979). Contribution to the study of the benthic community of the Algiers bight bay of Algiers. Thesis of 3 eme cycle, University of the Western Bretagne, Brest, 241 p.
  • Bakalem, A., Hassam, N., Oulmi, Y., Martinez, M., Dauvin, J.C. (2020). Diversity and geographical distribution of soft-bottom macrobenthos in the bay of Bou Ismail (Algeria, Mediterranean Sea) Regional Studies in Marine Science, 33, 100938. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2019.100938
  • Benali, I., Boutiba, Z., Grandjean, D., De Alencastro, L.F., Rouane-Hacene, O., Chevre, N. (2017). Spatial distribution and biological effects of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) and organic micropollutants (PCBs, PAHs) in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis along the Algerian west coast. Marine Pollution Buletin, 115(1‑2), 539‑550. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.12.028
  • Caulet, J. (1972). Organic sediments of the Algerian pre continent. Memory of the National Museum of Natural History, Paris, Serie. C, 25, 1-289.
  • Costa, L.T., O’Hara, T.D., Keough, M.J. ( 2010). Measures of taxonomic distinctness do not reliably assess anthropogenic impacts on intertidal mollusc communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 413, 81-93. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps08713
  • Dautzenberg, P.H. (1895). Mollusques recueillis sur la côte de Tunisie et de l’Algérie (Campagne de la Melita, 1892). Mémoire Société Zoologie, France, 8, 363-372.
  • De los Rios-Escalante, P., Contreras, A ., Lara, G., Latsague, M., Esse, C. (2020). First reports of associations between spectral properties, chlorophyll, bacterial and zooplankton in two Chilean north Patagonian lakes (Villarrica and Caburgua, 38_ S, Araucania region, Chile). Journal of King Saudia University – Science 32, 3167-3173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2020.09.003
  • Falconetti, C. (1980). Bionomie benthique des fonds situés à la limite du plateau continental du banc de Magaud (Iles d’Hyeres) et de la région de Calvi (Corse). Phd Thesis, Univ. Nice, 287p.
  • Glémarec, M., Grall, J. (2000). Les groupes écologiques et zoologiques d’invertébrés marins face aux dégradations de l’environnement côtier. Bulletin de la Société de Zoologie de France, 125(1), 37-48.
  • Gotelli, N.J., Graves, G.R. (1996). Null models in ecology. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC, USA. ISBN: 1.56098.645.3
  • Gotelli, N.J. (2000). Null models of species co-ocurrence patterns. Ecology, 81(9), 2606-2621. https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[2606:NMAOSC]2.0.CO;2
  • Gotelli, N.J., Ellison, A.M. (2013). Viewed 19 February 2020. EcoSimR: null models for ecology. Version 1.00 [online]. http://www.uvm.edu/~ngotelli/EcoSim/EcoSim.html
  • Hassam, N. (1991). Contribution à l'étude des peuplements macrobenthiques de la baie de Bou-Ismaïl: secteur Est. Magister Thesis, ISMAL, Alger, 146p.
  • Hinton, A. (1972). Shells of New Guinea and the Central Indo-Pacific. UK: Rigby Limited, 94 p.
  • Kerfouf, A., Amar, Y., Boutiba, Z. (2007). Distribution of Macrobenthos in the Coastal Waters in the Gulf of Oran (Western Algeria). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10(6), 899-904. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2007.899.904
  • Leclaire, L. (1972). Holocene sedimentation on the southernmost slope of the basin Algéro-Balearic Islands (Algerian precontinent). Memory of the National Natural history museum of Natural History, series. C, Tome XXIV, Paris, 372p.
  • Lima, S.F.B., Lucena, R.A, Santos, G.M., Souza, J.W., Christoffersen, M.L., Guimarães, C.R, Oliveira, G.S. (2017). Inventory of mollusks from the estuary of the Paraíba River in northeastern Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 17(1), e20160239. https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-bn-2016-0239
  • Llabadore, F. (1935). Les Mollusques testacés marins, terrestres et fluviatiles de l’Ouest algérien. Bulletin Société Géographie et Archéologie, Province d'Oran: 25 - 34.
  • Lodeiros, C., Garcia, N., Nunez, M., Marquez, A., Carranza, A. (2011). Diversity and community structure of soft-bottom benthic molluscs in the Araya Peninsula, Venezuela: a baseline for the assessment of environmental impacts. Marine Biodiversity Records, 4, e93. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755267211000145
  • Meziane, K., Kerfouf, A. (2018). Current Situation of Stramonita heamastoma (Linnaeus 1758) (Gasteropod Mollusk) in the Western Coast of Algeria. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR), 39(2), 40-46.
  • Meziane, A., Kerfouf, A., Baaloudj, A. (2020). Checklist of gastropod molluscs on the west coast of Algeria. International Journal of Aquatic Biology, 8(3), 224-227.
  • Millot, C. (1999). Circulation in the western Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Marine Systems, 20, 423-442. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-7963(98)00078-5
  • Oulmi, Y. (1991). Contribution â l'étude des peuplements macrobenthiques de la baie de Bou-Ismaïl: secteur Ouest. Magister Thesis, ISMAL, Alger, 170p.
  • Palaz, M. (2005). The Dynamics of the Benthic Molluscs in Inner Bay of the Izmir. Journal of Applied Sciences, 5, 44-46. https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2005.44.46
  • Pallary, P. (1900). Coquilles marines du littoral du Département d'Oran. Journal de Conchyliologie, 48(3), 211-422.
  • Pérès, J.M., Picard, J. (1964). Manual of Benthic Bionomics of the Mediterranean Sea. Recueil Travaux Station Marine d’Endoume, 31, 5-137.
  • Picard, J. (1965). Recherches qualitatives sur les biocénoses marines des substrats meubles dragages de la région marseillaise. Recueil Travaux Stations Marine d’Endoume, 36(52), 1-160.
  • Poppe, G.T. (2008). Philippine Marine Mollusks. Volume 1: Gastropoda, Part1. Germany: Conchbooks, HardbackMar, 758p., ISBN: 9783939767084
  • Rebzani-Zahaf, C. (1992). Le peuplement macrobenthique du port d’Alger: impact de la pollution. Hydroécologie Appliquée, 4, 91-103. https://doi.org/10.1051/hydro:1992208
  • Remili, S., Kerfouf, A. (2013). Evaluation de la qualité physico-chimique et du niveau de contamination métallique (Cd, Pb, Zn) des rejets d’eaux usées d’Oran et de Mostaganem (littoral ouest algérien). Physio-Géo - Géographie Physique et Environnement, (VII), 165-182. https://doi.org/10.4000/physio-geo.3258
  • Rouabhi, Y.L. (2020). Étude comparative de la biologie et de la bioaccumulation des métaux traces chez deux Mytilidae: Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819) et Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) de la côte ouest algérienne. Phd Thesis, University of Mons (Belgium), 174 p.
  • Springsteen, F.J, Leobrera, F.M. (1986). Shells of the Philippines. Manila: Carfel Seashell Museum, 377 p. ISBN: 971910290
  • Stora, G. (1982). Recherche de bionomie descriptive et expérimentale (in vivo et in vitro) dans quelques biotopes littoraux soumis à des variations naturelles ou artifi cielles des conditions du milieu (notamment dans l’étang de Berre et le Golfe de Fos). Thèse de Doctorat d’Etat Es-Sciences, Université d’Aix Marseille II (Marseille), 1-227.
  • Tiho, S., Josens, G. (2007). Co-occurrence of earthworms in urban surroundings: A null model analysis of community structure. European Journal of Soil Biology, 43(2), 84-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2006.10.004
  • Tondoh, J.E. (2006). Seasonal changes in earthworm diversity and community structure in Central Côte d’Ivoire. European Journal of Soil Biology, 42, 334-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2006.09.003
  • Vaissiere, R., Fredj, G. (1963). Contribution to the study of the benthic fauna of the continental shelf of Algeria, Bulletin of the Oceanographical Institute of Monaco, 60, 5-83.
  • Wong, N.L.W.S., Arshad, A. (2011). A Brief Review on Marine Shelled Mollusca (Gastropoda and Bivalvia) record in Malaysia. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 6(7), 669-699.
  • WORMS (2022). Available at https://www.marinespecies.org/ (accessed April. 2022).

Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 3, 209 - 218, 01.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22020

Abstract

References

  • AFNOR (1996). Sols: reconnaissance et essais - Analyse granulométrique - Méthode par tamisage à sec après lavage. NF P94-056-Normes - Afnor. Available online: https://www.boutique.afnor.org/ (accessed November 2020).
  • Amar, Y. (1998). Etude des peuplements macro-benthiques du golfe d’Arzew. Magister Thesis, ISMAL (Alger), 216p. + annexes, 70 p.
  • Bakalem, A., (1979). Contribution to the study of the benthic community of the Algiers bight bay of Algiers. Thesis of 3 eme cycle, University of the Western Bretagne, Brest, 241 p.
  • Bakalem, A., Hassam, N., Oulmi, Y., Martinez, M., Dauvin, J.C. (2020). Diversity and geographical distribution of soft-bottom macrobenthos in the bay of Bou Ismail (Algeria, Mediterranean Sea) Regional Studies in Marine Science, 33, 100938. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2019.100938
  • Benali, I., Boutiba, Z., Grandjean, D., De Alencastro, L.F., Rouane-Hacene, O., Chevre, N. (2017). Spatial distribution and biological effects of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) and organic micropollutants (PCBs, PAHs) in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis along the Algerian west coast. Marine Pollution Buletin, 115(1‑2), 539‑550. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.12.028
  • Caulet, J. (1972). Organic sediments of the Algerian pre continent. Memory of the National Museum of Natural History, Paris, Serie. C, 25, 1-289.
  • Costa, L.T., O’Hara, T.D., Keough, M.J. ( 2010). Measures of taxonomic distinctness do not reliably assess anthropogenic impacts on intertidal mollusc communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 413, 81-93. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps08713
  • Dautzenberg, P.H. (1895). Mollusques recueillis sur la côte de Tunisie et de l’Algérie (Campagne de la Melita, 1892). Mémoire Société Zoologie, France, 8, 363-372.
  • De los Rios-Escalante, P., Contreras, A ., Lara, G., Latsague, M., Esse, C. (2020). First reports of associations between spectral properties, chlorophyll, bacterial and zooplankton in two Chilean north Patagonian lakes (Villarrica and Caburgua, 38_ S, Araucania region, Chile). Journal of King Saudia University – Science 32, 3167-3173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2020.09.003
  • Falconetti, C. (1980). Bionomie benthique des fonds situés à la limite du plateau continental du banc de Magaud (Iles d’Hyeres) et de la région de Calvi (Corse). Phd Thesis, Univ. Nice, 287p.
  • Glémarec, M., Grall, J. (2000). Les groupes écologiques et zoologiques d’invertébrés marins face aux dégradations de l’environnement côtier. Bulletin de la Société de Zoologie de France, 125(1), 37-48.
  • Gotelli, N.J., Graves, G.R. (1996). Null models in ecology. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC, USA. ISBN: 1.56098.645.3
  • Gotelli, N.J. (2000). Null models of species co-ocurrence patterns. Ecology, 81(9), 2606-2621. https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[2606:NMAOSC]2.0.CO;2
  • Gotelli, N.J., Ellison, A.M. (2013). Viewed 19 February 2020. EcoSimR: null models for ecology. Version 1.00 [online]. http://www.uvm.edu/~ngotelli/EcoSim/EcoSim.html
  • Hassam, N. (1991). Contribution à l'étude des peuplements macrobenthiques de la baie de Bou-Ismaïl: secteur Est. Magister Thesis, ISMAL, Alger, 146p.
  • Hinton, A. (1972). Shells of New Guinea and the Central Indo-Pacific. UK: Rigby Limited, 94 p.
  • Kerfouf, A., Amar, Y., Boutiba, Z. (2007). Distribution of Macrobenthos in the Coastal Waters in the Gulf of Oran (Western Algeria). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10(6), 899-904. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2007.899.904
  • Leclaire, L. (1972). Holocene sedimentation on the southernmost slope of the basin Algéro-Balearic Islands (Algerian precontinent). Memory of the National Natural history museum of Natural History, series. C, Tome XXIV, Paris, 372p.
  • Lima, S.F.B., Lucena, R.A, Santos, G.M., Souza, J.W., Christoffersen, M.L., Guimarães, C.R, Oliveira, G.S. (2017). Inventory of mollusks from the estuary of the Paraíba River in northeastern Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 17(1), e20160239. https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-bn-2016-0239
  • Llabadore, F. (1935). Les Mollusques testacés marins, terrestres et fluviatiles de l’Ouest algérien. Bulletin Société Géographie et Archéologie, Province d'Oran: 25 - 34.
  • Lodeiros, C., Garcia, N., Nunez, M., Marquez, A., Carranza, A. (2011). Diversity and community structure of soft-bottom benthic molluscs in the Araya Peninsula, Venezuela: a baseline for the assessment of environmental impacts. Marine Biodiversity Records, 4, e93. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755267211000145
  • Meziane, K., Kerfouf, A. (2018). Current Situation of Stramonita heamastoma (Linnaeus 1758) (Gasteropod Mollusk) in the Western Coast of Algeria. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR), 39(2), 40-46.
  • Meziane, A., Kerfouf, A., Baaloudj, A. (2020). Checklist of gastropod molluscs on the west coast of Algeria. International Journal of Aquatic Biology, 8(3), 224-227.
  • Millot, C. (1999). Circulation in the western Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Marine Systems, 20, 423-442. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-7963(98)00078-5
  • Oulmi, Y. (1991). Contribution â l'étude des peuplements macrobenthiques de la baie de Bou-Ismaïl: secteur Ouest. Magister Thesis, ISMAL, Alger, 170p.
  • Palaz, M. (2005). The Dynamics of the Benthic Molluscs in Inner Bay of the Izmir. Journal of Applied Sciences, 5, 44-46. https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2005.44.46
  • Pallary, P. (1900). Coquilles marines du littoral du Département d'Oran. Journal de Conchyliologie, 48(3), 211-422.
  • Pérès, J.M., Picard, J. (1964). Manual of Benthic Bionomics of the Mediterranean Sea. Recueil Travaux Station Marine d’Endoume, 31, 5-137.
  • Picard, J. (1965). Recherches qualitatives sur les biocénoses marines des substrats meubles dragages de la région marseillaise. Recueil Travaux Stations Marine d’Endoume, 36(52), 1-160.
  • Poppe, G.T. (2008). Philippine Marine Mollusks. Volume 1: Gastropoda, Part1. Germany: Conchbooks, HardbackMar, 758p., ISBN: 9783939767084
  • Rebzani-Zahaf, C. (1992). Le peuplement macrobenthique du port d’Alger: impact de la pollution. Hydroécologie Appliquée, 4, 91-103. https://doi.org/10.1051/hydro:1992208
  • Remili, S., Kerfouf, A. (2013). Evaluation de la qualité physico-chimique et du niveau de contamination métallique (Cd, Pb, Zn) des rejets d’eaux usées d’Oran et de Mostaganem (littoral ouest algérien). Physio-Géo - Géographie Physique et Environnement, (VII), 165-182. https://doi.org/10.4000/physio-geo.3258
  • Rouabhi, Y.L. (2020). Étude comparative de la biologie et de la bioaccumulation des métaux traces chez deux Mytilidae: Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819) et Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) de la côte ouest algérienne. Phd Thesis, University of Mons (Belgium), 174 p.
  • Springsteen, F.J, Leobrera, F.M. (1986). Shells of the Philippines. Manila: Carfel Seashell Museum, 377 p. ISBN: 971910290
  • Stora, G. (1982). Recherche de bionomie descriptive et expérimentale (in vivo et in vitro) dans quelques biotopes littoraux soumis à des variations naturelles ou artifi cielles des conditions du milieu (notamment dans l’étang de Berre et le Golfe de Fos). Thèse de Doctorat d’Etat Es-Sciences, Université d’Aix Marseille II (Marseille), 1-227.
  • Tiho, S., Josens, G. (2007). Co-occurrence of earthworms in urban surroundings: A null model analysis of community structure. European Journal of Soil Biology, 43(2), 84-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2006.10.004
  • Tondoh, J.E. (2006). Seasonal changes in earthworm diversity and community structure in Central Côte d’Ivoire. European Journal of Soil Biology, 42, 334-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2006.09.003
  • Vaissiere, R., Fredj, G. (1963). Contribution to the study of the benthic fauna of the continental shelf of Algeria, Bulletin of the Oceanographical Institute of Monaco, 60, 5-83.
  • Wong, N.L.W.S., Arshad, A. (2011). A Brief Review on Marine Shelled Mollusca (Gastropoda and Bivalvia) record in Malaysia. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 6(7), 669-699.
  • WORMS (2022). Available at https://www.marinespecies.org/ (accessed April. 2022).

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Marine and Freshwater Biology
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Ahmed KERFOUF> (Primary Author)
University of Sidi Bel Abbes
0000-0002-4466-1201
Algeria


Patricio R. De Los RÍOS-ESCALANTE This is me
Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Químicas, Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Casilla 15-D, Temuco, Chile.
0000-0001-5056-7003
Chile


Kamel BELHADJ TAHAR This is me
University of Sidi Bel Abbes
0000-0002-0711-9296
Algeria


Françoise DENIS This is me
Marine Biology Station (MNHN), UMR 7208 ‘BOREA’, 29182, Concarneau, France
0000-0002-0006-8238
France

Publication Date July 1, 2022
Application Date February 2, 2022
Acceptance Date April 13, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { aquatres1064286, journal = {Aquatic Research}, eissn = {2618-6365}, address = {Esnaf Mah. Pembe Köşk Sok. Kentplus Kadıköy Sitesi B Blok D435 Kadıköy-İstanbul}, publisher = {Nuray ERKAN ÖZDEN}, year = {2022}, volume = {5}, number = {3}, pages = {209 - 218}, doi = {10.3153/AR22020}, title = {Distribution of soft-bottom benthic molluscs in the Gulf of Oran (Western Algeria)}, key = {cite}, author = {Kerfouf, Ahmed and Ríos-escalante, Patricio R. De Los and Belhadj Tahar, Kamel and Denıs, Françoise} }
APA Kerfouf, A. , Ríos-escalante, P. R. D. L. , Belhadj Tahar, K. & Denıs, F. (2022). Distribution of soft-bottom benthic molluscs in the Gulf of Oran (Western Algeria) . Aquatic Research , 5 (3) , 209-218 . DOI: 10.3153/AR22020
MLA Kerfouf, A. , Ríos-escalante, P. R. D. L. , Belhadj Tahar, K. , Denıs, F. "Distribution of soft-bottom benthic molluscs in the Gulf of Oran (Western Algeria)" . Aquatic Research 5 (2022 ): 209-218 <http://aquatres.scientificwebjournals.com/en/pub/issue/69220/1064286>
Chicago Kerfouf, A. , Ríos-escalante, P. R. D. L. , Belhadj Tahar, K. , Denıs, F. "Distribution of soft-bottom benthic molluscs in the Gulf of Oran (Western Algeria)". Aquatic Research 5 (2022 ): 209-218
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Distribution of soft-bottom benthic molluscs in the Gulf of Oran (Western Algeria) AU - Ahmed Kerfouf , Patricio R. De Los Ríos-escalante , Kamel Belhadj Tahar , Françoise Denıs Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.3153/AR22020 DO - 10.3153/AR22020 T2 - Aquatic Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 209 EP - 218 VL - 5 IS - 3 SN - -2618-6365 M3 - doi: 10.3153/AR22020 UR - https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22020 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Aquatic Research Distribution of soft-bottom benthic molluscs in the Gulf of Oran (Western Algeria) %A Ahmed Kerfouf , Patricio R. De Los Ríos-escalante , Kamel Belhadj Tahar , Françoise Denıs %T Distribution of soft-bottom benthic molluscs in the Gulf of Oran (Western Algeria) %D 2022 %J Aquatic Research %P -2618-6365 %V 5 %N 3 %R doi: 10.3153/AR22020 %U 10.3153/AR22020
ISNAD Kerfouf, Ahmed , Ríos-escalante, Patricio R. De Los , Belhadj Tahar, Kamel , Denıs, Françoise . "Distribution of soft-bottom benthic molluscs in the Gulf of Oran (Western Algeria)". Aquatic Research 5 / 3 (July 2022): 209-218 . https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22020
AMA Kerfouf A. , Ríos-escalante P. R. D. L. , Belhadj Tahar K. , Denıs F. Distribution of soft-bottom benthic molluscs in the Gulf of Oran (Western Algeria). Aquat Res. 2022; 5(3): 209-218.
Vancouver Kerfouf A. , Ríos-escalante P. R. D. L. , Belhadj Tahar K. , Denıs F. Distribution of soft-bottom benthic molluscs in the Gulf of Oran (Western Algeria). Aquatic Research. 2022; 5(3): 209-218.
IEEE A. Kerfouf , P. R. D. L. Ríos-escalante , K. Belhadj Tahar and F. Denıs , "Distribution of soft-bottom benthic molluscs in the Gulf of Oran (Western Algeria)", Aquatic Research, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 209-218, Jul. 2022, doi:10.3153/AR22020

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