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Effects of inorganic nutrient enrichment on the carrageenan yield, growth, and ice-ice disease occurrence of red alga Kappaphycus striatus

Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 2, 99 - 109, 01.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22009

Abstract

One of the problems in Kappaphycus farming is the slow growth in some farms due to nutrient insufficiency caused by overstocking. In the southern Philippines, most seaweed farmers practice inorganic nutrient enrichment of Kappaphycus to boost growth and decrease ice-ice disease occurrence using ammonium phosphate at an average concentration of 8.82 g L-1. In this study, experiments with Kappaphycus striatus enriched with inorganic nutrients were carried out at Pasiagan, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi, southern Philippines, using different inorganic nutrients (T1=8.82 g L-1 of urea, T2=8.82 g L-1 of phosphorus, and T3=control) within 45 days. Seaweeds were enriched in these three inorganic solutions for 30 seconds, placed into a large mat, covered with canvas, and left overnight. After 15 days, findings showed that the specific growth rates of T1 (6.99% day-1) and T3 (6.72% day-1) groups were significantly higher than the T2 (5.84% day-1) group (p<0.05). Inorganic nutrient enrichment did not significantly influence the occurrence of ice-ice disease. Moreover, inorganic nutrient enrichment did not affect the carrageenan yield after 45 days. K. striatus nutrient-enriched with urea could increase growth at day 15, but no effect on the occurrence of ice-ice disease and carrageenan yield. Hence, inorganic nutrient enrichment using urea provides a positive effect to farmed K. striatus by enhancing its growth without affecting its health and carrageenan yield. 

References

  • Ahmad, S.M.B. (2014). Extraction of kappa-carrageenan from local edible seaweeds. 1-14.
  • Arupin (1997). The socio-economic study of Euchuema Seaweeds Industry. Technical report published by Research Department, MSU-TCTO, Sanga-Sanga, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi, 12(1), 97.
  • Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) (2016). Philippine Fisheries Profiles 2016. 70p.
  • Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) (2019). Philippine Fisheries Profiles 2019. 76p.
  • Chopin, T., Hanisak, M.D., Koehn, F.E. (1991). Effects of seawater phosphorus concentration on floridean starch content in Agardhiella subulata (C. Agardh) Kraft et Wynne (Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina, 34, 369-373. https://doi.org/10.1515/botm.1991.34.4.369
  • Chopin, T., Wagey, B. (1999). Factorial study of the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen enrichments on nutrient and carrageenan content in Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyceae) and on residual nutrient concentration in seawater. Botanica Marina, 42, 23-31. https://doi.org/10.1515/BOT.1999.004
  • Doty M.S., Alvarez, V.B. (1975). Status, problems, advances and economics of Eucheuma farms. Marine Technology Society Journal, 9, 30-35.
  • FAO (2020). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2020. Sustainability in Action. Food & Agriculture Organization.
  • Harrison, P.J., Hurd, C.L. (2001). Nutrient physiology of seaweed: application of concepts to aquaculture. Cashiers de Biologie Marine, 42(1-2), 71-82.
  • Hayashi L., de Paula, E., Chow, F. (2007a). Growth rate and carrageenan analyses in four strains of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) farmed in the subtropical waters of Sao Paulo State, Brazil Journal Applied Phycology, 19, 393-399. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-913-6 Hayashi, L., Oliveira, E., Bleicher-Lhonneu, G., Boulenguer, P., Pereira, R.T.L., Seckendorff, R. Shimoda, V., Leflamand, A., Vallée, P., Critchley, A. (2007b). The effects of selected cultivation conditions on the carrageenan characteristics of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) in Ubatuba Bay, Sán Paulo State, Brazil. Journal of Applied Phycology, 19, 505-511. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-007-9163-x
  • Hayashi, L., Santos, A.A., Faria, G.S., Nunes, B.G., Souza, M.S., Fonseca, A.L., Barreto, P.L., Oliveira, E.C., Bouzon, Z.L. (2011). Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Areschougiaceae) Cultivated in subtropical waters in Southern Brazil. Journal of Applied Phycology, 23(3), 337-343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-010-9543-5
  • Hurtado, A.Q., Agbayani, R.F., Sanares, R., Castro-Mallare, M.T. (2001). The seasonality and economic feasibility of cultivating Kappaphycus alvarezii in Panagatan Cays, Caluya, Antique Philippines. Aquaculture, 199(3-4), 295-310. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(00)00553-6
  • Hurtado, A., Critchley, A., Trespoey, A. (2008). Growth and carrageenan quality of Kappaphycus striatum var. sacol grown at different stocking densities, duration of culture and depth. Journal of Applied Phycology, 20, 551-555. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-008-9339-z
  • Hurtado, A.Q., Iain, C.N., Alan, T.C. (2015). Developments in production technology of Kappaphycus in the Philippines: more than four decades of farming. Journal of Applied Phycology, 27(5), 1945-1961.
  • Husin, A.B. (2014). Extraction of kappa-carrageenan from local seaweeds. University Malaysia Pahang, 1-18. https://umpir.ump.edu.my/id/eprint/10682
  • Lapointe, B.E. (1986). Phosphorus-limited photosynthesis and growth of Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans (Phaeophyceae) in the Western North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research, 33(3), 391-399. https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(86)90099-3
  • Largo, D.B. (2002). Recent developments in seaweed diseases. In; Hurtado, A.Q., Guanzon N.G., Castro-Mallare, de Jr., T.R. & Luhan M.R.J. (Eds) Proceedings of the National Seaweed Planning Workshop. Philippines. pp. 35-42.
  • Largo, D.B., Fukami, K., Nishijima, T., Ohno, M. (1995a). Laboratory-induced development of ice-ice disease of the farmed red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum (Solieriaceae, Gagartinales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 7(6), 539-543. https://doi.org/10.1007/Bf00003940
  • Largo, D.B., Fukami, K., Nishijima, T. (1995b). Occasional pathogenic bacteria promoting ice-ice disease in the carrageenan producing red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 7(6), 545-554. https://doi.org/10/1007/Bf00003941
  • Laurienzo, P. (2010). Marine polysaccharides in pharmaceutical applications: An overview. Marine Drugs, 8(9), 2435-2465. https://doi.org/10.3390/md8092435
  • Loureiro, R.R., Reis, R.P., Critchley, A.T. (2009). In vitro cultivation of three Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Areschougiaceae) variants (green, red and brown) exposed to a commercial extract of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucaceae, Ochrophyta) Journal of Applied Phycology, 22(1), 101-104. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-009-9412-2
  • Luhan, M.R.J., Avañcena, S.S., Mateo, J.P. (2015). Effects of short-term immersion of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty in high nitrogen on the growth, nitrogen assimilation, carrageenan quality, and occurrence of ice-ice disease. Journal of Applied Phycology, 27(2), 917-922. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-014-0365-8
  • Martins, A.P., Junior, O.N., Colepicolo, P., Yokota, N.S. (2011). Effects of nitrate and phosphate availabilities on growth, photosynthesis and pigment and protein contents in colour strain of Hypinea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu.) J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, 21(2), 340-348. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000078
  • McHugh, D.J. (1987). Production, properties and uses of alginates. FAO Fisheries Technical paper 288, 58-115.
  • Neish, A.C., Shacklock, P.F., Fox, C.H., Simpson, F.J. (1977). The cultivation of Chondrus crispus. Factors affecting growth under greenhouse conditions. Canadian Journal Botany, 55, 2263-2271. https://doi.org/10.1139/b77-256
  • Provin, T.L., Pitt, J.L. (2008). Phosphorus--Too much and plants may suffer. Produce by Agricultural Communications, The Texas A&M University System. 2pp. https://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/86793
  • Robles, R.J.F. (2020). Effects of different concentrations of ammonium phosphate on the yield and the quality of carrageenan, Kappaphycus striatus (Schmitz) Doty ex Silva. Journal of Fisheries, Livestock and Veterinary Science. 1(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.18801/jflvs.010120.01
  • Romero, J.B., Montaño, N.E., Merca, F.E., Rumbaoa, R.G.O., Villanueva, R.D. (2000). Effect of sucrose on some physical properties of different Phillippine agar. Philippine Journal of Sciences, 129(1), 7-13.
  • Rui, L., Jiajun, L., Chaoyuan, W. (1990). Effect of ammonium on growth and carrageenan content in Kappaphycus alvarezii (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Thirteenth International Seaweed Symposium, 499-503. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-2049-1_71
  • Sahoo, D., Ohno, M. (2003). Culture of Kappaphycus alvarezii in deep seawater and nitrogen enrichment medium. Bulletin of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, 22, 89-96.
  • Sekar, R., Thangaraju, N., Rengasamy, R. (1995). Effects of seaweed liquid fertilizers from Ulva lactuca on Vigna unguiculata L. (walp.), Phykos, 34, 49-53.
  • Solis, M.J., Draeger, S., Dela Cruz, T.E. (2010). Marine-derived fungi from Kappaphycus alvarezii and K. striatus as potential causative agents of ice-ice disease in farmed seaweeds. Botanica Marina, 53(6), 587-594. https://doi.org/10.1515/bot.2010.071
  • Tahiluddin, A.B. (2018). Influence of fertilization on the occurrence of Vibrio, “ice-ice” disease and growth of seaweed Kappaphycus striatus (F. Schmitz) Doty ex P.C. Silva. [M.Sc. Thesis. University of the Philippines Visayas].
  • Tahiluddin, A.B., Terzi, E. (2021a). Ice-ice disease in commercially cultivated seaweeds Kappaphycus spp. and Eucheuma spp.: A review on the causes, occurrence, and control measures. Marine Science and Technology Bulletin, 10(3), 234-243. https://doi.org/10.33714/masteb.917788
  • Tahiluddin, A., Terzi, E. (2021b). An overview of fisheries and aquaculture in the Philippines. Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences. https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.944292
  • Tahiluddin, A.B., Nuñal, S.N., Luhan, M.R.J., Santander–de Leon, S.M.S. (2021a). Vibrio and heterotrophic marine bacteria composition and abundance in nutrient-enriched Kappaphycus striatus. Philippine Journal of Science, 150(6B), 1549-1761.
  • Tahiluddin, A.B., Alawi, T.I., Hassan, N.S.A., Jaji, S.N.A., Terzi, E. (2021b). Abundance of culturable heterotrophic marine bacteria in Ulva lactuca associated with farmed seaweeds Kappaphycus spp. and Eucheuma denticulatum. Journal of Agricultural Production, 2(2), 44-47. https://doi.org/10.29329/agripro.2021.360.1
  • Tariq, A., Pan, K., Olatunji, O.A., Graciano, C., Li, Z., Sun, F., Zhang, L., Wu, X., Chen, W., Song, D., Huang, D., Xue, T., Zhang, A. (2018). Phosphorus fertilization alleviates drought effects on Alnus cremastogyne by regulating its antioxidant and osmotic potential. Scientific Report, 8, 5644. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-24038-2
  • Thirumaran, G., Arumugan, M., Arumugan, R., Anantharaman, P. (2009). Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer on growth and pigment concentration of Cyamopsis tetrogonolaba (L) Taub. American-Eurasian Journal of Agronomy, 2(2), 57-66.
  • Tisera, W.L. Naguit, M.R.A. (2009). Ice-ice disease occurrence in seaweed farms in Bais Bay, Negros Oriental and Zamboanga del Norte. The Threshold, 4, 1-16.
  • Topinka, J.A., Robbins, J.V. (1976). Effect of nitrate and ammonium enrichment on growth and nitrogen physiology in Fucus spiralis. Limnology and Oceanography, 21(5), 659-664. https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1976.21.5.0659
  • Trono G.C. Jr. (1992). Eucheuma and Kappaphycus: taxonomy and cultivation. Bulletin Marine Science Institute College of Science, 12, 51-65.
  • Trono G.C. Jr. (1993). Effects of biological, physical and socio-economic factors on the productivity of Eucheuma/Kappaphycus farming industry. In: Calumpong H.P. and Menez E.G. (eds), Proc. Second RP-USA Phycology Symp./Workshop., Cebu City and Dumaguete City, Philippines 239-245.
  • Trono G.C. Jr. (1997). Field Guide and Atlas of the Seaweeds Resources of the Philippines. Bookmark, Inc, Makati City, Philippines 302 pp.
  • Uchida, R. (2000). Essential Nutrients for Plant Growth: Nutrient Functions and Deficiency Symptoms R. Uchida. From Plant Nutrient Management in Hawaii’s Soils, Approaches for Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Uyenco, F.R., Saniel, L.S., Jacinto, G.S. (2019). The ice-ice problem in seaweed farming. In Levring T (eds.), Proc. Tenth Int. Seaw. Symp. Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin, 625-630. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110865271-084
  • Villares, R., Puente, X., Carballeira, A. (1999). Nitrogen and phosphorus in Ulva sp. in the Galician Rias Bajas (northwest Spain): Seasonal fluctuations influence on growth. Boletin-Instituto Español de Oceanografia, 15 (1-4), 337-341.
  • Zhiguang, X., Zou, D., Gao, K. (2010). Effect of elevated CO2 and phosphorus supply on growth, photosynthesis and nutrient uptake in the marine macroalgae Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina, 53, 123-129.https://doi.org/10.1515/BOT.2010.012

Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 2, 99 - 109, 01.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22009

Abstract

References

  • Ahmad, S.M.B. (2014). Extraction of kappa-carrageenan from local edible seaweeds. 1-14.
  • Arupin (1997). The socio-economic study of Euchuema Seaweeds Industry. Technical report published by Research Department, MSU-TCTO, Sanga-Sanga, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi, 12(1), 97.
  • Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) (2016). Philippine Fisheries Profiles 2016. 70p.
  • Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) (2019). Philippine Fisheries Profiles 2019. 76p.
  • Chopin, T., Hanisak, M.D., Koehn, F.E. (1991). Effects of seawater phosphorus concentration on floridean starch content in Agardhiella subulata (C. Agardh) Kraft et Wynne (Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina, 34, 369-373. https://doi.org/10.1515/botm.1991.34.4.369
  • Chopin, T., Wagey, B. (1999). Factorial study of the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen enrichments on nutrient and carrageenan content in Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyceae) and on residual nutrient concentration in seawater. Botanica Marina, 42, 23-31. https://doi.org/10.1515/BOT.1999.004
  • Doty M.S., Alvarez, V.B. (1975). Status, problems, advances and economics of Eucheuma farms. Marine Technology Society Journal, 9, 30-35.
  • FAO (2020). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2020. Sustainability in Action. Food & Agriculture Organization.
  • Harrison, P.J., Hurd, C.L. (2001). Nutrient physiology of seaweed: application of concepts to aquaculture. Cashiers de Biologie Marine, 42(1-2), 71-82.
  • Hayashi L., de Paula, E., Chow, F. (2007a). Growth rate and carrageenan analyses in four strains of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) farmed in the subtropical waters of Sao Paulo State, Brazil Journal Applied Phycology, 19, 393-399. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-913-6 Hayashi, L., Oliveira, E., Bleicher-Lhonneu, G., Boulenguer, P., Pereira, R.T.L., Seckendorff, R. Shimoda, V., Leflamand, A., Vallée, P., Critchley, A. (2007b). The effects of selected cultivation conditions on the carrageenan characteristics of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) in Ubatuba Bay, Sán Paulo State, Brazil. Journal of Applied Phycology, 19, 505-511. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-007-9163-x
  • Hayashi, L., Santos, A.A., Faria, G.S., Nunes, B.G., Souza, M.S., Fonseca, A.L., Barreto, P.L., Oliveira, E.C., Bouzon, Z.L. (2011). Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Areschougiaceae) Cultivated in subtropical waters in Southern Brazil. Journal of Applied Phycology, 23(3), 337-343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-010-9543-5
  • Hurtado, A.Q., Agbayani, R.F., Sanares, R., Castro-Mallare, M.T. (2001). The seasonality and economic feasibility of cultivating Kappaphycus alvarezii in Panagatan Cays, Caluya, Antique Philippines. Aquaculture, 199(3-4), 295-310. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(00)00553-6
  • Hurtado, A., Critchley, A., Trespoey, A. (2008). Growth and carrageenan quality of Kappaphycus striatum var. sacol grown at different stocking densities, duration of culture and depth. Journal of Applied Phycology, 20, 551-555. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-008-9339-z
  • Hurtado, A.Q., Iain, C.N., Alan, T.C. (2015). Developments in production technology of Kappaphycus in the Philippines: more than four decades of farming. Journal of Applied Phycology, 27(5), 1945-1961.
  • Husin, A.B. (2014). Extraction of kappa-carrageenan from local seaweeds. University Malaysia Pahang, 1-18. https://umpir.ump.edu.my/id/eprint/10682
  • Lapointe, B.E. (1986). Phosphorus-limited photosynthesis and growth of Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans (Phaeophyceae) in the Western North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research, 33(3), 391-399. https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(86)90099-3
  • Largo, D.B. (2002). Recent developments in seaweed diseases. In; Hurtado, A.Q., Guanzon N.G., Castro-Mallare, de Jr., T.R. & Luhan M.R.J. (Eds) Proceedings of the National Seaweed Planning Workshop. Philippines. pp. 35-42.
  • Largo, D.B., Fukami, K., Nishijima, T., Ohno, M. (1995a). Laboratory-induced development of ice-ice disease of the farmed red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum (Solieriaceae, Gagartinales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 7(6), 539-543. https://doi.org/10.1007/Bf00003940
  • Largo, D.B., Fukami, K., Nishijima, T. (1995b). Occasional pathogenic bacteria promoting ice-ice disease in the carrageenan producing red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 7(6), 545-554. https://doi.org/10/1007/Bf00003941
  • Laurienzo, P. (2010). Marine polysaccharides in pharmaceutical applications: An overview. Marine Drugs, 8(9), 2435-2465. https://doi.org/10.3390/md8092435
  • Loureiro, R.R., Reis, R.P., Critchley, A.T. (2009). In vitro cultivation of three Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Areschougiaceae) variants (green, red and brown) exposed to a commercial extract of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucaceae, Ochrophyta) Journal of Applied Phycology, 22(1), 101-104. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-009-9412-2
  • Luhan, M.R.J., Avañcena, S.S., Mateo, J.P. (2015). Effects of short-term immersion of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty in high nitrogen on the growth, nitrogen assimilation, carrageenan quality, and occurrence of ice-ice disease. Journal of Applied Phycology, 27(2), 917-922. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-014-0365-8
  • Martins, A.P., Junior, O.N., Colepicolo, P., Yokota, N.S. (2011). Effects of nitrate and phosphate availabilities on growth, photosynthesis and pigment and protein contents in colour strain of Hypinea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu.) J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, 21(2), 340-348. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000078
  • McHugh, D.J. (1987). Production, properties and uses of alginates. FAO Fisheries Technical paper 288, 58-115.
  • Neish, A.C., Shacklock, P.F., Fox, C.H., Simpson, F.J. (1977). The cultivation of Chondrus crispus. Factors affecting growth under greenhouse conditions. Canadian Journal Botany, 55, 2263-2271. https://doi.org/10.1139/b77-256
  • Provin, T.L., Pitt, J.L. (2008). Phosphorus--Too much and plants may suffer. Produce by Agricultural Communications, The Texas A&M University System. 2pp. https://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/86793
  • Robles, R.J.F. (2020). Effects of different concentrations of ammonium phosphate on the yield and the quality of carrageenan, Kappaphycus striatus (Schmitz) Doty ex Silva. Journal of Fisheries, Livestock and Veterinary Science. 1(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.18801/jflvs.010120.01
  • Romero, J.B., Montaño, N.E., Merca, F.E., Rumbaoa, R.G.O., Villanueva, R.D. (2000). Effect of sucrose on some physical properties of different Phillippine agar. Philippine Journal of Sciences, 129(1), 7-13.
  • Rui, L., Jiajun, L., Chaoyuan, W. (1990). Effect of ammonium on growth and carrageenan content in Kappaphycus alvarezii (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Thirteenth International Seaweed Symposium, 499-503. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-2049-1_71
  • Sahoo, D., Ohno, M. (2003). Culture of Kappaphycus alvarezii in deep seawater and nitrogen enrichment medium. Bulletin of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, 22, 89-96.
  • Sekar, R., Thangaraju, N., Rengasamy, R. (1995). Effects of seaweed liquid fertilizers from Ulva lactuca on Vigna unguiculata L. (walp.), Phykos, 34, 49-53.
  • Solis, M.J., Draeger, S., Dela Cruz, T.E. (2010). Marine-derived fungi from Kappaphycus alvarezii and K. striatus as potential causative agents of ice-ice disease in farmed seaweeds. Botanica Marina, 53(6), 587-594. https://doi.org/10.1515/bot.2010.071
  • Tahiluddin, A.B. (2018). Influence of fertilization on the occurrence of Vibrio, “ice-ice” disease and growth of seaweed Kappaphycus striatus (F. Schmitz) Doty ex P.C. Silva. [M.Sc. Thesis. University of the Philippines Visayas].
  • Tahiluddin, A.B., Terzi, E. (2021a). Ice-ice disease in commercially cultivated seaweeds Kappaphycus spp. and Eucheuma spp.: A review on the causes, occurrence, and control measures. Marine Science and Technology Bulletin, 10(3), 234-243. https://doi.org/10.33714/masteb.917788
  • Tahiluddin, A., Terzi, E. (2021b). An overview of fisheries and aquaculture in the Philippines. Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences. https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.944292
  • Tahiluddin, A.B., Nuñal, S.N., Luhan, M.R.J., Santander–de Leon, S.M.S. (2021a). Vibrio and heterotrophic marine bacteria composition and abundance in nutrient-enriched Kappaphycus striatus. Philippine Journal of Science, 150(6B), 1549-1761.
  • Tahiluddin, A.B., Alawi, T.I., Hassan, N.S.A., Jaji, S.N.A., Terzi, E. (2021b). Abundance of culturable heterotrophic marine bacteria in Ulva lactuca associated with farmed seaweeds Kappaphycus spp. and Eucheuma denticulatum. Journal of Agricultural Production, 2(2), 44-47. https://doi.org/10.29329/agripro.2021.360.1
  • Tariq, A., Pan, K., Olatunji, O.A., Graciano, C., Li, Z., Sun, F., Zhang, L., Wu, X., Chen, W., Song, D., Huang, D., Xue, T., Zhang, A. (2018). Phosphorus fertilization alleviates drought effects on Alnus cremastogyne by regulating its antioxidant and osmotic potential. Scientific Report, 8, 5644. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-24038-2
  • Thirumaran, G., Arumugan, M., Arumugan, R., Anantharaman, P. (2009). Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer on growth and pigment concentration of Cyamopsis tetrogonolaba (L) Taub. American-Eurasian Journal of Agronomy, 2(2), 57-66.
  • Tisera, W.L. Naguit, M.R.A. (2009). Ice-ice disease occurrence in seaweed farms in Bais Bay, Negros Oriental and Zamboanga del Norte. The Threshold, 4, 1-16.
  • Topinka, J.A., Robbins, J.V. (1976). Effect of nitrate and ammonium enrichment on growth and nitrogen physiology in Fucus spiralis. Limnology and Oceanography, 21(5), 659-664. https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1976.21.5.0659
  • Trono G.C. Jr. (1992). Eucheuma and Kappaphycus: taxonomy and cultivation. Bulletin Marine Science Institute College of Science, 12, 51-65.
  • Trono G.C. Jr. (1993). Effects of biological, physical and socio-economic factors on the productivity of Eucheuma/Kappaphycus farming industry. In: Calumpong H.P. and Menez E.G. (eds), Proc. Second RP-USA Phycology Symp./Workshop., Cebu City and Dumaguete City, Philippines 239-245.
  • Trono G.C. Jr. (1997). Field Guide and Atlas of the Seaweeds Resources of the Philippines. Bookmark, Inc, Makati City, Philippines 302 pp.
  • Uchida, R. (2000). Essential Nutrients for Plant Growth: Nutrient Functions and Deficiency Symptoms R. Uchida. From Plant Nutrient Management in Hawaii’s Soils, Approaches for Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Uyenco, F.R., Saniel, L.S., Jacinto, G.S. (2019). The ice-ice problem in seaweed farming. In Levring T (eds.), Proc. Tenth Int. Seaw. Symp. Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin, 625-630. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110865271-084
  • Villares, R., Puente, X., Carballeira, A. (1999). Nitrogen and phosphorus in Ulva sp. in the Galician Rias Bajas (northwest Spain): Seasonal fluctuations influence on growth. Boletin-Instituto Español de Oceanografia, 15 (1-4), 337-341.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Marine Science
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Jurmin SARRİ
College of Fisheries, Mindanao State University-Tawi-Tawi College of Technology and Oceanography, Sanga-Sanga, Bongao, 7500 Tawi-Tawi, Philippines
0000-0002-4798-0566
Türkiye


Yusop ABDULMUTALIB
College of Fisheries, Mindanao State University-Tawi-Tawi College of Technology and Oceanography, Sanga-Sanga, Bongao, 7500 Tawi-Tawi, Philippines
0000-0001-9238-9372
Philippines


Melapearl MOHAMMAD TILKA
College of Fisheries, Mindanao State University-Tawi-Tawi College of Technology and Oceanography, Sanga-Sanga, Bongao, 7500 Tawi-Tawi, Philippines
0000-0002-3503-6674
Türkiye


Ertuğrul TERZİ
Kastamonu University
0000-0003-2811-6497
Türkiye


Albaris TAHILUDDIN (Primary Author)
College of Fisheries, Mindanao State University-Tawi-Tawi College of Technology and Oceanography
0000-0002-3237-3552
Philippines

Thanks The authors are grateful to the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) and Mindanao State University Tawi-Tawi College of Technology and Oceanography (MSU-TCTO), College of Fisheries (COF).
Early Pub Date January 28, 2022
Publication Date April 1, 2022
Application Date September 24, 2021
Acceptance Date December 6, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { aquatres1000442, journal = {Aquatic Research}, eissn = {2618-6365}, address = {Esnaf Mah. Pembe Köşk Sok. Kentplus Kadıköy Sitesi B Blok D435 Kadıköy-İstanbul}, publisher = {Nuray ERKAN ÖZDEN}, year = {2022}, volume = {5}, number = {2}, pages = {99 - 109}, doi = {10.3153/AR22009}, title = {Effects of inorganic nutrient enrichment on the carrageenan yield, growth, and ice-ice disease occurrence of red alga Kappaphycus striatus}, key = {cite}, author = {Sarri, Jurmin and Abdulmutalıb, Yusop and Mohammad Tılka, Melapearl and Terzi, Ertuğrul and Tahıluddın, Albaris} }
APA Sarri, J. , Abdulmutalıb, Y. , Mohammad Tılka, M. , Terzi, E. & Tahıluddın, A. (2022). Effects of inorganic nutrient enrichment on the carrageenan yield, growth, and ice-ice disease occurrence of red alga Kappaphycus striatus . Aquatic Research , 5 (2) , 99-109 . DOI: 10.3153/AR22009
MLA Sarri, J. , Abdulmutalıb, Y. , Mohammad Tılka, M. , Terzi, E. , Tahıluddın, A. "Effects of inorganic nutrient enrichment on the carrageenan yield, growth, and ice-ice disease occurrence of red alga Kappaphycus striatus" . Aquatic Research 5 (2022 ): 99-109 <http://aquatres.scientificwebjournals.com/en/pub/issue/68273/1000442>
Chicago Sarri, J. , Abdulmutalıb, Y. , Mohammad Tılka, M. , Terzi, E. , Tahıluddın, A. "Effects of inorganic nutrient enrichment on the carrageenan yield, growth, and ice-ice disease occurrence of red alga Kappaphycus striatus". Aquatic Research 5 (2022 ): 99-109
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of inorganic nutrient enrichment on the carrageenan yield, growth, and ice-ice disease occurrence of red alga Kappaphycus striatus AU - Jurmin Sarri , Yusop Abdulmutalıb , Melapearl Mohammad Tılka , Ertuğrul Terzi , Albaris Tahıluddın Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.3153/AR22009 DO - 10.3153/AR22009 T2 - Aquatic Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 99 EP - 109 VL - 5 IS - 2 SN - -2618-6365 M3 - doi: 10.3153/AR22009 UR - https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22009 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Aquatic Research Effects of inorganic nutrient enrichment on the carrageenan yield, growth, and ice-ice disease occurrence of red alga Kappaphycus striatus %A Jurmin Sarri , Yusop Abdulmutalıb , Melapearl Mohammad Tılka , Ertuğrul Terzi , Albaris Tahıluddın %T Effects of inorganic nutrient enrichment on the carrageenan yield, growth, and ice-ice disease occurrence of red alga Kappaphycus striatus %D 2022 %J Aquatic Research %P -2618-6365 %V 5 %N 2 %R doi: 10.3153/AR22009 %U 10.3153/AR22009
ISNAD Sarri, Jurmin , Abdulmutalıb, Yusop , Mohammad Tılka, Melapearl , Terzi, Ertuğrul , Tahıluddın, Albaris . "Effects of inorganic nutrient enrichment on the carrageenan yield, growth, and ice-ice disease occurrence of red alga Kappaphycus striatus". Aquatic Research 5 / 2 (April 2022): 99-109 . https://doi.org/10.3153/AR22009
AMA Sarri J. , Abdulmutalıb Y. , Mohammad Tılka M. , Terzi E. , Tahıluddın A. Effects of inorganic nutrient enrichment on the carrageenan yield, growth, and ice-ice disease occurrence of red alga Kappaphycus striatus. Aquat Res. 2022; 5(2): 99-109.
Vancouver Sarri J. , Abdulmutalıb Y. , Mohammad Tılka M. , Terzi E. , Tahıluddın A. Effects of inorganic nutrient enrichment on the carrageenan yield, growth, and ice-ice disease occurrence of red alga Kappaphycus striatus. Aquatic Research. 2022; 5(2): 99-109.
IEEE J. Sarri , Y. Abdulmutalıb , M. Mohammad Tılka , E. Terzi and A. Tahıluddın , "Effects of inorganic nutrient enrichment on the carrageenan yield, growth, and ice-ice disease occurrence of red alga Kappaphycus striatus", Aquatic Research, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 99-109, Apr. 2022, doi:10.3153/AR22009

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