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ANALYSIS OF MERCURY (HG) IN FOUR HOLOTHURIANS SPECIES (PHYLUM-ECHINODERMATA) FROM KARACHI COAST-NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA

Year 2018, Volume 1, Issue 2, 55 - 63, 24.02.2018
https://doi.org/10.3153/AR18007

Abstract

Nowadays metal bioaccumulation in holothuroids is increasing and is a cause of worry owing to toxicity. In the present study the concentrations of mercury (Hg) were measured in holothuroids (Holothuria (Thymiosycia) arenicola Semper, 1868, Holothuria (Lessonothuria) pardalis Selenka, 1867, Holothuria (Lessonothuria) verrucosa Selenka, 1867 and Holothuria (Halodeima) atra Jaeger, 1833) collected during different seasons (pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon) in 2015 at Buleji and Sunehri coasts of Karachi, Pakistan. Hg concentrations of tentacles were higher than those in muscle, tentacle and gut tissues of the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon. The lowest Hg concentrations were found in muscle tissues at all seasons in Buleji and Sunehri coasts. The mean levels in the muscle tissues were 0.018 mg/kg dry wt. for H. arenicola, 0.024 mg/kg dry wt. for H. verrucosa, 0.026 mg/kg dry wt. for H. pardalis and 0.036 mg/kg dry wt. for H. Atra. The results indicate that according to the European Union legislation the Hg amounts in all tissues of holothurians is much lower than permitted levels. In terms of Estimated Weekly Intakes, this current work also proved that there was no likely health hazard to consumers on account of intake of sea cucumbers under the current consumption rate in Buleji and Sunehri coasts of Karachi, Arabian Sea.

References

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  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L., Yousuf, F. (2015). Accumulation of heavy metals in tissues of long tail tuna from Karachi Fish Harbour, Pakistan. Aquatic Science and Technology, 3(1), 103-115.
  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L. (2015a). Heavy metal levels in Euthynnus affinis (Cantor, 1849) Kawakawa fish marketed of Karachi fish harbour, Pakistan and potential risk of human health. J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment, 21(1), 35-44.
  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L. (2015b). Mercury (Hg) Levels in Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Scombridae) from Karachi fish harbour and its risk assessment. Journal of FisheriesSciences.com, 9(3), 15-19.
  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L. (2015c). Potential risk of some heavy metals in Pampus chinensis (Euphrasen) Chinese silver pomfret Stromateidae collected from Karachi fish harbour, Pakistan. International Journal of Marine Science, 5(21), 1-5.
  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L. (2015d). Comparison of Pb and Cd concentration in tissues of fish Alepes djedaba (Forsskål, 1775) collected from Karachi fish harbour. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, 2(4), 93-96.
  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L. (2016a). The role of Zn and Cu in muscles tissues of Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen, 1788), marketed by Karachi fish harbour, Pakistan. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology, 13(7), 571-578.
  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L. (2016b). Levels and health risk assessments of Cd and Pb in Pomadasys maculatus marketed by Karachi fish harbor. ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences, 21(2), 53-58.
  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L., Yousuf, F. (2017a). Contamination of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus, 1758) from Karachi fish harbor and potential risks to human health. International Journal of Marine Science, 7(9), 76-87.
  • Ahmed, Q., Mohammed Ali, Q., Bat, L. (2017b). Assessment of heavy metals concentration in Holothurians, sediments and water samples from coastal areas of Pakistan (northern Arabian Sea). Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 5(5), 191-201.
  • Bat, L., Özkan, E.Y., Öztekin, H.C. (2015). The contamination status of trace metals in Sinop coast of the Black Sea, Turkey. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 13(1), 1-10.
  • Bat, L., Özkan, E.Y. (2015). Chapter 13. Heavy metal levels in sediment of the Turkish Black Sea coast. In: Bikarska I, Raykov V, Nikolov N. (Eds.) Progressive Engineering Practices in Marine Resource Management (p. 399-419) Advances in Environmental Engineering and Green Technologies IGI Global book series USA. ISSN 2326-9162
  • Bat, L., Özkan, E.Y., Büyükisik, H.B., Öztekin, H.C. (2017). Assessment of metal pollution in sediments along Sinop peninsula of the Black Sea. International Journal of Marine Science, 7(22), 205-213.
  • Bernhard, M. (1976). Manual of Methods in the Aquatic Environment Research. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper FIRI/T no.158, Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome.
  • EC (COMMISSION REGULATION) No 466/2001 of 8 March 2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Retrieved from https://assurance.redtractor.org.uk/contentfiles/Farmers-5441.pdf?_=635912156334316244 (accessed 29.01.18)
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  • Jinadasa, B.K.K.K., Samanthi, R.I., Wicramsinghe, I. (2014). Trace metal accumulation in tissue of sea cucumber species; North-Western Sea of Sri Lanka. American Journal of Public Health Research, 2(5A), 1-5.
  • Official Journal of the European Union (2013). Directive 2013/39/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 August 2013 amending Directives 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC as regards priority substances in the field of water policy. L 226:1-17. Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32013L0039&from=EN (accessed 29.01.18)
  • Özer, N.P., Mol, S., Varlık, C. (2004). Effect of the handling procedures on the chemical composition of sea cucumber. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 4, 71-74.
  • TFC (2002). Official Gazette of Republic of Turkey. Notifications about determination of the maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs of Turkish Food Codex (in Turkish). (Notification No: 2002/63), Issue: 24885. Retrieved from http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/main.aspx?home=http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2002/09/20020923.htm/20020923.htm&main=http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2002/09/20020923.htm (accessed 29.01.18)
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  • UNEP (1984). Determination of Total Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu in Selected Marine Organisms by flameless AAS. Reference Methods for Marine Pollution Studies, 11 Rev 1.
  • UNEP (1985). GESAMP: Cadmium, lead and tin the Marine Environment. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies, no 56, GESAMP Reports and Studies, no 22.
  • Warnau, M., Dutrieux, S., Ledent, G., Rodriguez Y Baena, A.M., Dúbois, P. (2006). Heavy metals in the sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa (Echinodermata) from the Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica ecosystem: body compartment, seasonal, geographical and bathymetric variations. Environmental Bioindicators, 1, 1-18.
  • WHO (World Health Organization) (1989). Heavy metals environmental aspects. Environmental Health Criteria, No. 85 Geneva, Switzerland.
  • WHO (World Health Organization). (1996). Trace elements in human nutrition and health. NLM Classification, QU 130, Geneva, Switzerland. ISBN 9241561734
  • WoRMS Editorial Board (2018). World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved from http://www.marinespecies.org at VLIZ. doi:10.14284/170 (accessed 29.01.18)
  • Zar, J.H. (1984). Biostatistical analysis. Second edition. Prentice Hall, Int., New Jersey.

Year 2018, Volume 1, Issue 2, 55 - 63, 24.02.2018
https://doi.org/10.3153/AR18007

Abstract

References

  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L., Mohammed Ali, Q. (2014). Determination of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Pb concentrations in Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus, 1766) from the Korangi fish harbour, Karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences, 23 (1&2), 25-32.
  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L., Yousuf, F. (2015). Accumulation of heavy metals in tissues of long tail tuna from Karachi Fish Harbour, Pakistan. Aquatic Science and Technology, 3(1), 103-115.
  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L. (2015a). Heavy metal levels in Euthynnus affinis (Cantor, 1849) Kawakawa fish marketed of Karachi fish harbour, Pakistan and potential risk of human health. J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment, 21(1), 35-44.
  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L. (2015b). Mercury (Hg) Levels in Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Scombridae) from Karachi fish harbour and its risk assessment. Journal of FisheriesSciences.com, 9(3), 15-19.
  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L. (2015c). Potential risk of some heavy metals in Pampus chinensis (Euphrasen) Chinese silver pomfret Stromateidae collected from Karachi fish harbour, Pakistan. International Journal of Marine Science, 5(21), 1-5.
  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L. (2015d). Comparison of Pb and Cd concentration in tissues of fish Alepes djedaba (Forsskål, 1775) collected from Karachi fish harbour. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, 2(4), 93-96.
  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L. (2016a). The role of Zn and Cu in muscles tissues of Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen, 1788), marketed by Karachi fish harbour, Pakistan. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology, 13(7), 571-578.
  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L. (2016b). Levels and health risk assessments of Cd and Pb in Pomadasys maculatus marketed by Karachi fish harbor. ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences, 21(2), 53-58.
  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L., Yousuf, F. (2017a). Contamination of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus, 1758) from Karachi fish harbor and potential risks to human health. International Journal of Marine Science, 7(9), 76-87.
  • Ahmed, Q., Mohammed Ali, Q., Bat, L. (2017b). Assessment of heavy metals concentration in Holothurians, sediments and water samples from coastal areas of Pakistan (northern Arabian Sea). Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 5(5), 191-201.
  • Bat, L., Özkan, E.Y., Öztekin, H.C. (2015). The contamination status of trace metals in Sinop coast of the Black Sea, Turkey. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 13(1), 1-10.
  • Bat, L., Özkan, E.Y. (2015). Chapter 13. Heavy metal levels in sediment of the Turkish Black Sea coast. In: Bikarska I, Raykov V, Nikolov N. (Eds.) Progressive Engineering Practices in Marine Resource Management (p. 399-419) Advances in Environmental Engineering and Green Technologies IGI Global book series USA. ISSN 2326-9162
  • Bat, L., Özkan, E.Y., Büyükisik, H.B., Öztekin, H.C. (2017). Assessment of metal pollution in sediments along Sinop peninsula of the Black Sea. International Journal of Marine Science, 7(22), 205-213.
  • Bernhard, M. (1976). Manual of Methods in the Aquatic Environment Research. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper FIRI/T no.158, Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome.
  • EC (COMMISSION REGULATION) No 466/2001 of 8 March 2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Retrieved from https://assurance.redtractor.org.uk/contentfiles/Farmers-5441.pdf?_=635912156334316244 (accessed 29.01.18)
  • EC (COMMISSION REGULATION) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Retrieved from https://www.fsai.ie/uploadedFiles/Consol_Reg1881_2006.pdf (accessed 29.01.18)
  • EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). (2012). Scientific opinion on the risk for public health related to the presence of mercury and methylmercury in food. EFSA Journal, 10(12), 2985-3226.
  • European Union (2014). Common implementation strategy for the water framework directive (2000/60/EC) Guidance, Document No. 32 on biota monitoring (the implementation of EQSbiota) under the water framework directive. EU Technical Report - 2014 – 083, Publication Office, 87 pp. Retrieved from https://circabc.europa.eu/sd/a/62343f10-5759-4e7c-ae2b-12677aa57605/Guidance%20No%2032%20-%20Biota%20Monitoring.pdf (accessed 29.01.18)
  • FAO. 2010. Statistics Division Food Security Statistics, Food Consumption. Retrieved from https://www.google.com.tr/search?ei=229vWoCSLsXXwAK6lZeQAg&q=FoodConsumptionFoodGroups_en&oq=FoodConsumptionFoodGroups_en&gs_l=psy-ab.3...109594.109594.0.110467.1.1.0.0.0.0.0.0..0.0....0...1c.1.64.psy-ab..1.0.0....0.LsEWLycb_ho (accessed 29.01.18)
  • Jinadasa, B.K.K.K., Samanthi, R.I., Wicramsinghe, I. (2014). Trace metal accumulation in tissue of sea cucumber species; North-Western Sea of Sri Lanka. American Journal of Public Health Research, 2(5A), 1-5.
  • Official Journal of the European Union (2013). Directive 2013/39/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 August 2013 amending Directives 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC as regards priority substances in the field of water policy. L 226:1-17. Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32013L0039&from=EN (accessed 29.01.18)
  • Özer, N.P., Mol, S., Varlık, C. (2004). Effect of the handling procedures on the chemical composition of sea cucumber. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 4, 71-74.
  • TFC (2002). Official Gazette of Republic of Turkey. Notifications about determination of the maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs of Turkish Food Codex (in Turkish). (Notification No: 2002/63), Issue: 24885. Retrieved from http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/main.aspx?home=http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2002/09/20020923.htm/20020923.htm&main=http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2002/09/20020923.htm (accessed 29.01.18)
  • TFC (2008). Official Gazette of Republic of Turkey. Notifications about maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs (in Turkish). No 2008 / 26, Issue: Retrieved from http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/main.aspx?home=http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2008/05/20080517.htm/20080517.htm&main=http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2008/05/20080517.htm (accessed 29.01.18)
  • UNEP (1984). Determination of Total Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu in Selected Marine Organisms by flameless AAS. Reference Methods for Marine Pollution Studies, 11 Rev 1.
  • UNEP (1985). GESAMP: Cadmium, lead and tin the Marine Environment. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies, no 56, GESAMP Reports and Studies, no 22.
  • Warnau, M., Dutrieux, S., Ledent, G., Rodriguez Y Baena, A.M., Dúbois, P. (2006). Heavy metals in the sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa (Echinodermata) from the Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica ecosystem: body compartment, seasonal, geographical and bathymetric variations. Environmental Bioindicators, 1, 1-18.
  • WHO (World Health Organization) (1989). Heavy metals environmental aspects. Environmental Health Criteria, No. 85 Geneva, Switzerland.
  • WHO (World Health Organization). (1996). Trace elements in human nutrition and health. NLM Classification, QU 130, Geneva, Switzerland. ISBN 9241561734
  • WoRMS Editorial Board (2018). World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved from http://www.marinespecies.org at VLIZ. doi:10.14284/170 (accessed 29.01.18)
  • Zar, J.H. (1984). Biostatistical analysis. Second edition. Prentice Hall, Int., New Jersey.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Marine and Freshwater Biology
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Quratulan AHMED (Primary Author)
The Marine Reference Collection and Resource Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270 Pakistan
0000-0002-2289-6691
Pakistan


Levent BAT
University of Sinop, Fisheries Faculty, Department of Hydrobiology, Sinop, Turkey
0000-0002-2289-6691
Türkiye


Qadeer Mohammad ALI This is me
The Marine Reference Collection and Resource Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi
0000-0002-0499-0801
Pakistan

Publication Date February 24, 2018
Application Date January 31, 2018
Acceptance Date February 22, 2018
Published in Issue Year 2018, Volume 1, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { aquatres387279, journal = {Aquatic Research}, issn = {}, eissn = {2618-6365}, address = {Esnaf Mah. Pembe Köşk Sok. Kentplus Kadıköy Sitesi B Blok D435 Kadıköy-İstanbul}, publisher = {Nuray ERKAN ÖZDEN}, year = {2018}, volume = {1}, pages = {55 - 63}, doi = {10.3153/AR18007}, title = {ANALYSIS OF MERCURY (HG) IN FOUR HOLOTHURIANS SPECIES (PHYLUM-ECHINODERMATA) FROM KARACHI COAST-NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA}, key = {cite}, author = {Ahmed, Quratulan and Bat, Levent and Alı, Qadeer Mohammad} }
APA Ahmed, Q. , Bat, L. & Alı, Q. M. (2018). ANALYSIS OF MERCURY (HG) IN FOUR HOLOTHURIANS SPECIES (PHYLUM-ECHINODERMATA) FROM KARACHI COAST-NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA . Aquatic Research , 1 (2) , 55-63 . DOI: 10.3153/AR18007
MLA Ahmed, Q. , Bat, L. , Alı, Q. M. "ANALYSIS OF MERCURY (HG) IN FOUR HOLOTHURIANS SPECIES (PHYLUM-ECHINODERMATA) FROM KARACHI COAST-NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA" . Aquatic Research 1 (2018 ): 55-63 <http://aquatres.scientificwebjournals.com/en/pub/issue/35668/387279>
Chicago Ahmed, Q. , Bat, L. , Alı, Q. M. "ANALYSIS OF MERCURY (HG) IN FOUR HOLOTHURIANS SPECIES (PHYLUM-ECHINODERMATA) FROM KARACHI COAST-NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA". Aquatic Research 1 (2018 ): 55-63
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - ANALYSIS OF MERCURY (HG) IN FOUR HOLOTHURIANS SPECIES (PHYLUM-ECHINODERMATA) FROM KARACHI COAST-NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA AU - Quratulan Ahmed , Levent Bat , Qadeer Mohammad Alı Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.3153/AR18007 DO - 10.3153/AR18007 T2 - Aquatic Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 55 EP - 63 VL - 1 IS - 2 SN - -2618-6365 M3 - doi: 10.3153/AR18007 UR - https://doi.org/10.3153/AR18007 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Aquatic Research ANALYSIS OF MERCURY (HG) IN FOUR HOLOTHURIANS SPECIES (PHYLUM-ECHINODERMATA) FROM KARACHI COAST-NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA %A Quratulan Ahmed , Levent Bat , Qadeer Mohammad Alı %T ANALYSIS OF MERCURY (HG) IN FOUR HOLOTHURIANS SPECIES (PHYLUM-ECHINODERMATA) FROM KARACHI COAST-NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA %D 2018 %J Aquatic Research %P -2618-6365 %V 1 %N 2 %R doi: 10.3153/AR18007 %U 10.3153/AR18007
ISNAD Ahmed, Quratulan , Bat, Levent , Alı, Qadeer Mohammad . "ANALYSIS OF MERCURY (HG) IN FOUR HOLOTHURIANS SPECIES (PHYLUM-ECHINODERMATA) FROM KARACHI COAST-NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA". Aquatic Research 1 / 2 (February 2018): 55-63 . https://doi.org/10.3153/AR18007
AMA Ahmed Q. , Bat L. , Alı Q. M. ANALYSIS OF MERCURY (HG) IN FOUR HOLOTHURIANS SPECIES (PHYLUM-ECHINODERMATA) FROM KARACHI COAST-NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA. Aquat Res. 2018; 1(2): 55-63.
Vancouver Ahmed Q. , Bat L. , Alı Q. M. ANALYSIS OF MERCURY (HG) IN FOUR HOLOTHURIANS SPECIES (PHYLUM-ECHINODERMATA) FROM KARACHI COAST-NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA. Aquatic Research. 2018; 1(2): 55-63.
IEEE Q. Ahmed , L. Bat and Q. M. Alı , "ANALYSIS OF MERCURY (HG) IN FOUR HOLOTHURIANS SPECIES (PHYLUM-ECHINODERMATA) FROM KARACHI COAST-NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA", Aquatic Research, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 55-63, Feb. 2018, doi:10.3153/AR18007

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